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IT is a commonplace of criticism that Lucian 
was the first of the moderns, but in truth he 
is near to our time because of all the ancients 
he is nearest to his own. With Petronius he 
shared the discovery that there is material for 
literature in the debased and various life of 
every day that to the seeing eye the indi- 
vidual is more wonderful in colour and com- 
plexity than the severely simple abstraction of 
the poets. He replaced the tradition, respected 
of his fathers, by an observation more vivid 
and less pedantic than the note-book of the 
naturalist. He set the world in the dry 
light of truth, and since the vanity of man- 


kind is a constant factor throughout the ages, 
there is scarce a page of Lucian's writing that 
wears the faded air of antiquity. His person- 
ages are as familiar to-day as they were in the 
second century, because, with his pitiless deter- 
mination to unravel the tangled skein of human 
folly, he never blinded his vision to their true 
qualities. And the multiplicity of his interest 
is as fresh as his penetration. Nothing came 
amiss to his eager curiosity. For the first time 
in the history of literature (with the doubtful 
exception of Cicero) we encounter a writer whose 
ceaseless activity includes the world. While 
others had declared themselves poets, histo- 
rians, philosophers, Lucian comes forth as a 
man of letters. Had he lived to-day, he 
would have edited a newspaper, written leading 
articles, and kept his name ever before the 
public in the magazines. For he possessed 
the qualities, if he avoided the defects, of the 
journalist. His phrase had not been worn by 


constant use to imbecility ; his sentences were 
not marred by the association of commonness ; 
his style was still his own and fit for the 
expression of a personal view. But he noted 
such types and incidents as make an imme- 
diate, if perennial, appeal, and to study him is 
to be convinced that literature and journalism 
are not necessarily divorced. 

The profession was new, and with the joy of 
the innovator Lucian was never tired of invent- 
ing new genres. Romance, criticism, satire he 
mastered them all. In Toxaris and The Ass he 
proves with what delicacy and restraint he could 
handle the story. His ill-omened apprentice- 
ship to a sculptor gave him that taste and 
feeling for art which he turned to so admirable 
an account. He was, in fact, the first of the 
art-critics, and he pursued the craft with an 
easy unconsciousness of the heritage he be- 
queathed to the world. True, he is silent 
concerning the technical practice of the Greeks; 


true, he leaves us in profound ignorance of the 
art of Zeuxis, whose secrets he might have 
revealed, had he been less a man of letters. 
But he found in painting and sculpture an 
opportunity for elegance of phrase, and we 
would forgive a thousand shortcomings for such 
inspirations of beauty as the smile of Sosandra: 
ro ftstMafiu o-spvov xa,} fahtjdog. In literary criticism 
he was on surer ground, and here also he 
leaves the past behind. His knowledge of 
Greek poetry was profound ; Homer he had 
by heart ; and on every page he proves his 
sympathies by covert allusion or precise quota- 
tion. His treatise concerning the Writing of 
History* preserves its force irresistible after 
seventeen centuries, nor has the wisdom of the 
ages impeached or modified this lucid argument. 
With a modest wit he compares himself to 
Diogenes, who, when he saw his fellow-citizens 
busied with the preparations of war, gathered 

Sa IffTopiav 


his skirts about him and fell to rolling his tub 
up and down. So Lucian, unambitious of 
writing history, sheltered himself from " the 
waves and the smoke," and was content to 
provide others with the best of good counsel. 
Yet such is the irony of accident that, as 
Lucian's criticism has outlived the masterpieces 
of Zeuxis, so the historians have snatched 
an immortality from his censure ; and let it 
be remembered for his glory that he used 
Thucydides as a scourge wherewith to beat 
impostors. But matters of so high import did 
not always engross his humour, and in The 
Illiterate Book-buyer* he satirizes a fashion of 
the hour and of all time with a courage and 
brutality which tear the heart out of truth. 
How intimately does he realize his victim ! 
And how familiar is this same victim in his 
modern shape ! You know the very streets 
he haunts ; you know the very shops wherein 

KOI TroAXa )3</3Am uvo6/uevov. 


he is wont to acquire his foolish treasures ; 
you recognize that not by a single trait 
has Lucian dishonoured his model. In yet 
another strange instance Lucian anticipated 
the journalist of to-day. Though his disciples 
know it not, he invented the interview. In 
that famous visit to the Elysian Fields, which 
is a purple patch upon his masterpiece, The 
True History, he " went to talk with Homer 
the Poet, our leisure serving us both well," 
and he put precisely those questions which 
the modern hack, note-book in hand, would 
seek to resolve. First, remembering the seven 
cities, he would know of Homer what father- 
land claimed him, and when the poet " said 
indeed he was a Babylonian, and among his 
own countrymen not called Homer but Tigra- 
nes," Lucian straightly " questioned him about 
those verses in his books that are disallowed as 
not of his making ; " whereto Homer replied 
with a proper condemnation of Zenodotus and 


Aristarchus. And you wonder whether Lucian 
is chastising his contemporaries or looking 
with the eye of a prophet into the future. 

But even more remarkable than his many- 
coloured interest is Lucian's understanding. 
He was, so to say, a perfect Intelligencelthrown 
by accident into an age of superstition and cre- 
dulity. It is not only that he knew all things : 
he saw all things in their right relation. If 
the Pagan world had never before been con- 
scious of itself, it had no excuse to harbour 
illusions after his coming. Mr. Pater speaks 
of the intellectual light he turned upon dim 
places, and truly no corner of life escaped the 
gleam of his lantern. Gods, philosophers, 
necromancers, yielded up their secrets to his 
enquiry. With pitiless logic he criticized 
their extravagance and pretension; and actively 
anticipating the spirit of modern science, he 
accepted no fact, he subscribed to no theory, 
which he had not examined with a cold irnpar- 


tiality. Indeed, he was Scepticism in human 
shape, but as the weapon of his destruction is 
always raillery, as he never takes either himself 
or his victims with exaggerated seriousness, 
you may delight in his attack, even though 
you care not which side wins the battle. His 
wit was as mordant as Heine's own ; is it 
fantastical to suggest that Lucian too carried 
Hebrew blood in his veins ? yet when 
the onslaught is most unsparing he is still 
joyous. For a gay contempt, not a bitter hatred, 
is the note of his satire. And for the very 
reason that his scepticism was felt, that it 
sprang from a close intimacy with the follies 
of his own time, so it is fresh and familiar 
to an age that knows not Zeus. Not even the 
Dialogues of the Gods are out of date, for if 
we no longer reverence Olympus, we still blink 
our eyes at the flash of ridicule. And 
might not the Philopseudes, that masterly 
analysis of ghostly terrors, might not 


Alexander the False Prophet, have been 
written yesterday? 

And thus we arrive at Lucian's weakness. 
In spite of its brilliance and flippancy, his 
scepticism is at times over-intelligent. His 
good sense baffles you by its infallibility ; his 
sanity is so magnificently beyond question, 
that you pray for an interlude of unreason. 
The sprightliness of his wit, the alertness 
of his fancy, mitigate the perpetual Tightness 
of his judgment. But it must be confessed 
that for all his delicate sense of ridicule he 
cherished a misguided admiration of the 
truth. If only he had understood the joy of 
self-deception, if only he had realized more 
often (as he realized in The Ass\ the delight 
of throwing probability to the winds, we had 
regarded him with a more constant affection. 
His capital defect sprang from a lack of the 
full-blooded humour which should at times 
have led him into error. And yet by an irony 



it was this very love of truth which suggested 
The True History, that enduring masterpiece 
of phantasy. Setting out to prove his hatred 
of other men's lies, he shows himself on the 
road the greatest liar of them all. "The father 
and founder of all this foolery was Homer's 
Ulysses " : thus he writes in his Preface, 
confessing that in a spirit of emulation he 
" turned his style to publish untruths," but 
with an honester mind, " for this one thing 
I confidently pronounce for a truth, that I 
lie." Such is the spirit of the work, nor 
is there the smallest doubt that Lucian, once 
embarked upon his voyage, slipped from his 
ideal, to enjoy the lying for its own sake. 
If The True History fails as a parody, that 
is because we care not a jot for Ctesias, 
lambulus and the rest, at whom the satire 
is levelled. Its fascination, in fact, is due to 
those same qualities which, in others, its author 
affected to despise. The facile variety of its 


invention can scarce be matched in literature, 
and the lies are told with so delightful an 
unconcern, that belief is never difficult. Nor 
does the narrative ever flag. It ends at 
the same high level of falsehood in which 
it has its beginning. And the credibility is 
increased by the harmonious consistency of 
each separate lie. At the outset the traveller 
discovers a river of wine, and forthwith travels 
up stream to find the source, and "when we 
were come to the head " (to quote Hickes's 
translation), " no spring at all appeared, but 
mighty vine-trees of infinite number, which 
from their roots distilled pure wine, which 
made the river run so abundantly." So con- 
clusive is the explanation, that you only would 
have wondered had the stream been of water. 
And how admirable is the added touch that 
he who ate fish from the river was made 
drunk ! Then by a pleasant gradation you 
are carried on from the Hippogypians, or the 

b 2 


Riders of Vultures, every feather in whose 
wing is bigger and longer than the mast of 
a tall ship, from the fleas as big as twelve 
elephants, to those spiders of mighty bigness, 
every one of which exceeded in size an isle of 
the Cyclades. "These were appointed to spin 
a web in the air between the Moon and the 
Morning Star, which was done in an instant, 
and made a plain champaign, upon which the 
foot forces were planted." Truly a very 
Colossus of falsehood, but Lucian's ingenuity 
is inexhausted and inexhaustible, and the 
mighty Whale is his masterpiece of impu- 
dence. For he " contained in greatness fifteen 
hundred furlongs " ; his teeth were taller 
than beech-trees, and when he swallowed the 
travellers, he showed himself so far superior to 
Jonah's fish, that ship and all sailed down 
his throat, and happily he caught not the 
pigmy shallop between his chops. And the 
geographical divisions of the Whale's belly, and 


Lucian's adventures therein, are they not set 
down with circumstantial verity ? Then there 
is the episode of the frozen ship, and the sea of 
milk, with its well-pressed cheese for an island, 
which reminds one of the Elizabethan madri- 
gal: "If there were O an Hellespont of Cream." 
Moreover, the verisimilitude is enhanced by 
a scrupulously simple style. No sooner is 
the preface concerning lying at an end than 
Lucian lapses into pure narrative. A wealth 
of minutely considered detail gives an air of 
reality to the most monstrous impossibility ; 
the smallest facts are explicitly divulged ; 
the remote accessories described with order 
and impressiveness ; so that the wildest inven- 
tion appears plausible, even inevitable, and you 
know that you are in company with the very 
genius of falsehood. Nor does this wild diver- 
sity of invention suggest romance. It is still 
classic in style and shape ; not a phrase nor a 
word is lost ; and expression, as always in the 


classics, is reduced to its lowest terms. But 
when the travellers reach the Islands of the 
Blessed, the style takes on a colour and a 
beauty which it knew not before. A fragrant 
air breathed upon them, as of " roses, daffodils, 
gillyflowers, lilies, violets, myrtles, bays, and 
blossoms of vines." Happy also was the Isle 

to look upon : tvQa. dq KOU xaOecagupev hipevcig re 

ico'k\Qvq Kegl voiffciv axKvffrovg xcu peya,hov$, 

re ^tavyelq l%iovrot$ qgipa e$ rqv dctKctrrav' In 

xcx,} yXaj %,} ogvsa fAovrixoe,, rot. fttv tiri ruv 

^ ruv Kaav' ciqg re 

KCX,} evwovg ffegiexe^vro r^v ")(upnv '. "a. still 
and gentle air compassing the whole country." 
Where will you find a more vivid impression 
of elegance and serenity? or where match "the 
melody of the branches, like the sound of 
wind instruments in a solitary place " 
xXuduv zivoupivuv regirvu, xou <rvve%ij piK 
ioixoroc, rois eir' egyptus etuXrjfAoiri ruv ir\a,yiuv 

And when the splendour of the city breaks 


upon you, with its smaragdus, its cinnamon- 
tree, its amethyst, ivory, and beryl, the 
rich barbarity suggests Solomon's Temple, or 
the City of the Revelation. Its inhabitants 
are the occasion of infinite jesting, and again 
and again does Lucian satirize the philoso- 
phers, his dearest foes. Socrates was in danger 
of being thrust forth by Rhadamanthus, qv 

while as for Diogenes the Sinopean, so pro- 
foundly was he changed from his old estate, 
that he had married Lais the Harlot. The 
journey to Hell is another excuse to gird at 
the historians. The severest torments were 
inflicted, says Lucian, upon Ctesias the Cni- 
dian, Herodotus and many others, which the 
writer beholding " was put in great hopes that 
I should never have anything to do there, for I 
do not know that ever I spake any untruth in 
my life." And yet with all his irony, all his 
scorn, Lucian has ever a side-glance at litera- 


ture. The verse of Homer is constantly upon 
his lips, and it is from Homer that the Gods 
take their ditties in the Elysian fields. Again, 
when the traveller visits the city of Nephelo- 
coccygia, it is but to think upon the poet 
Aristophanes, " how wise a man he was, and 
how true a reporter, and how little cause there 
is to question his fidelity for what he hath 

Such is the work which, itself a masterpiece, 
has been a pattern and an exemplar unto 
others. If Utopia and its unnumbered rivals 
derive from Plato, there is not a single 
Imaginary Traveller that is not modelled 
upon Lucian. The True History was, in 
effect, the beginning of a new literature. Not 
only was its framework borrowed, not only 
was its habit of fantastic names piously 
imitated, but the disciples, like the master, 
turned their voyages to the purpose of satire. 
It was Rabelais who made the first adaptation, 


for, while Epistemon's descent into Hell was 
certainly suggested by Lucian, Pantagruel's 
voyage is an ample travesty of The True His- 
tory, and Lanternland, the home of the Lych- 
nobii, is but Lychnopolis, Lucian's own City 
of Lights. The seventeenth century discovered 
another imitator in Cyrano de Bergerac, whose 
tepid Voyage dans la Lune is interesting 
merely because it is a link in the chain that 
unites Lucian with Swift. Yet the book had an 
immense popularity, and Cyrano's biographer 
has naught to say of the original traveller, 
save that he told his story "avec beaucoup 
moins de vraisemblance et de gentilesse 
d'imagination que M. de Bergerac." An 
astounding judgment surely, which time has 
already reversed. And then came Gulliver's 
Travels, incomparably the greatest descendant 
of The True History. To what excellent pur- 
pose Swift followed his Lucian is proved alike 
by the amazing probability of his narrative, 


and the cruelty of his satire. Like Lucian, he 
professed an unveiled contempt for philoso- 
phers and mathematicians ; unlike Lucian, he 
made his imaginary journey the occasion for a 
fierce satire upon kings and politicians. But 
so masterly is the narrative, so convincing the 
reality of Lilliput and Brobdignag, that Gul- 
liver retains its hold upon our imagination, 
though the meaning of its satire is long since 
blunted. Swift's work came to astonish the 
world in ,1727, and some fourteen years later 
in the century Holberg astonished the wits of 
Denmark with a satire cast in Lucian's mould. 
Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum thus ran 
the title, and from Latin the book was trans- 
lated into every known tongue. The city of 
walking trees, the home of the Potuans, and 
many another invention, prove Holberg's debt 
to the author of The True History. And if 
the genre is dead to-day, it is dead because 
the most intrepid humourist would hesitate 


to walk in the footsteps of Lemuel Gul- 

Fortunate in his imitators, Lucian has been 
not wholly unfortunate in his translators. Not 
even envy could pick a quarrel with Francis 
Hickes, whose Englishing of The True History 
is here reprinted. The book appeared, under 
the auspices of Hickes's son, in 1634, four 
years after the translator's death. Thus it is 
described on the title-page : " Certaine Select 
Dialogues of Lucian together with his True 
Historie, translated from the Greeke into 
English by Mr. Francis Hickes. Whereunto 
is added the Life of Lucian gathered out of 
his own Writings, with briefe Notes and Illus- 
trations upon each Dialogue and Booke, by 
T. H. Master of Arts, of Christ Church in 
Oxford. Oxford, Printed by William Turner. 
1634." Composed with a certain dignity, it 
is dedicated " to the Right Worshipfull Dr. 
Duppa, Deane of Christ-Church, and Vice- 


Chancellor of the famous Universitie in Ox- 
ford." And the work reflects a wholesome 
glory upon the famous University. For it is 
the work of a scholar, who knew both the lan- 
guages. Though his diction lacked the spirit 
and colour which distinguish the splendid 
versions of North and Holland, he was far 
more keenly conscious of his original than were 
those masters of prose. Not only did he, unlike 
North, translate directly from the Greek, but he 
followed his original with loyalty and patience. 
In brief, his Lucian is a miracle of suitability. 
The close simplicity of Hickes fits the classical 
restraint of The True History to admiration. 
As the Greek is a model of narrative, so you 
cannot read the English version without think- 
ing of the incomparable Hakluyt. Thirty 
years after the first printing of the translation, 
Jasper Mayne published his " Part of Lucian 
made English," wherein he added sundry 
versions of his own to the work already 


accomplished by Francis Hickes. And in his 
" Epistle Dedicatory " he discusses the art of 
translation with an intelligence which proves 
how intimately he realized the excellent 
quality of Hicks's version. " For as the 
Painter," thus Jasper Mayne, " who would 
draw a man of a bald head, rumpled fore- 
head, copper nose, pigge eyes, and ugly face, 
draws him not to life, nor doth the business 
of his art, if he draw him less deformed or 
ugly than he is ; or as he who would draw 
a faire, amiable lady, limbes with an erring 
pencil, and drawes a libell, not a face, if he 
gives her not just features, and perfections : 
So in the Translation of Bookes, he who 
makes a dull author elegant and quick ; or 
a sharp, elegant author flat, rustick, rude and 
dull, by contrary wayes, commits the same 
sinne, and cannot be said to translate, but 
to transforme." That is sound sense, and 
judged by the high standard of Jasper Mayne, 


Francis Hickes has most valliantly acquitted 

He was the son of Richard Hickes, an arras- 
weaver of Barcheston, in Warwickshire, and 
after taking the degree of bachelor in the 
University of Oxford, which he entered in 
1579, at the age of thirteen, he was diverted 
(says Thomas, his son) " by a country retire- 
ment." Henceforth he devoted his life to 
husbandry and Greek. Besides Lucian, he 
translated Thucydides and Herodian, the 
manuscripts of which are said to survive in 
the library of Christ-Church. Possibly it 
was his long retirement that gave a turn of 
pedantry to his mind. It was but natural that 
in his remote garden he should exaggerate 
the importance of the knowledge acquired in 
patient solitude. But certain it is that the 
notes wherewith he decorated his margins are 
triumphs of inapposite erudition. When Lu- 
cian describes the famous cobwebs, each one 


of which was as big as an island of the 
Cyclades, Hickes thinks to throw light upon 
the text with this astonishing irrelevancy : 
"They are in the Aegean Sea, in number 
13." The foible is harmless, nay pleasant, 
and consonant with the character of the 
learned recluse. Thus lived Francis Hickes, 
silent and unknown, until in 1630 he died at 
a kinsman's house at Sutton in Gloucester- 
shire. And you regret that his glory was 
merely posthumous. For, pedant as he was, 
he made known to his countrymen the enemy 
of all the pedants, and turned a masterpiece 
of Greek into English as sound and scholarly 
as is found in any translator of his time. 




i. QcTTrep Tolq aQXy-ciKol*; Kai ire pi 

ov r 

ajv (f)poi>Ti<; 

<rrw 9 oiXXa K&I ry$ Kara Kaipov yivo- 

TO (AeyicrTOv avrvjv 

irpovyKeiv fiera ryv TroXXyv 

avievai re 

TOV 7TlTa 



EVEN as champions and wrestlers and such The Proem - 
as practise the strength and agility of body 
are not only careful to retain a sound con- 
stitution of health, and to hold on their 
ordinary course of exercise, but sometimes The mind 

J requires some 

recreation as 

also to recreate themselves with seasonable dl as the 


intermission, and esteem it as a main point 
of their practice ; so I think it necessary for 
scholars and such as addict themselves to the 
study of learning, after they have travelled 
long in the perusal of serious authors, to 
relax a little the intention of their thoughts, 
that they may be more apt and able to endure 
a continued course of study. 

B 2 

AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 2. 

2. YevoiTO ' av e 

el Tolq TOIOVTOH; rcov 

a /JUTJ p,ovov eK rov acrrelov re 

ylav, oiXXa Tiva K.CLI Oecoplav QVK (L 

o/ov T/ Kai jrepi rcovSe 

fypovycreiv v7roXa/A/3avo} ' ov 

yap [Aovov TO Bevov lyq vTroOecreax; ov$e TO 

ov$ OTI 
T KCH ev(L\y}d(jL>$ e^evTjvo^CLfjjev^ aXX' OTI 


irpoq Tivaq yviKTUi Tcov 

T KCLl (7Va()6(*)l> KCLl 

Tpao~Tia xai 

, ovq KCLI ovop J oij<JTi av eyp&fyov, el ^ 


And this kind of repose will be the more 
conformable, and fit their purpose better, if it 
be employed in the reading of such works as 
shall not only yield a bare content by the *Ji?/ 


pleasing and comely composure of them, but 
shall also give occasion of some learned specula- 
tion to the mind, which I suppose I have 
effected in these books of mine : wherein not 
only the novelty of the subject, nor the pleasing- 
ness of the project, may tickle the reader with 
delight, nor to hear so many notorious lies 
delivered persuasively and in the way of truth, 
but because everything here by me set down 
doth in a comical fashion glance at some or 
other of the old poets, historiographers, and 
philosophers, which in their writings have 
recorded many monstrous and intolerable 
untruths, whose names I would have quoted 


KOI avroj croi K 

a^ o KTV)O'IO%OV o Ky//0 crvve- 


ire pi tyc, 'l^&cov %(Dpaq KCM 
Trap avTols a /Ayre avTO$ e/Se 


y/KOvcrev. eypastye 6 

TOJV ev 


, OVK 

vTrode&iv. TToXXo} 6 KOA aXXoi ra 



Se avTo7 KCLI 


down, but that I knew the reading would 
bewray them to you. 

Ctesias, the son of Ctesiochus, the Cnidian, 

30 books of the 

wrote of the region of the Indians and the 
state of those countries, matters which he 
neither saw himself, nor ever heard come from 
the mouth of any man. lambulus also wrote 
many strange miracles of the great sea, which 
all men knew to be lies and fictions, yet so 
composed that they want not their delight : 
and many others have made choice of the 
like argument, of which some have published 
their own travels and peregrinations, wherein 
they have described the greatness of beasts, 
the fierce condition of men, with their strange 
and uncouth manner of life : but the first 
father and founder of all this foolery was 

AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 4. 

o TOV 

ne pi TOV 'AXK/VOVV ^tyyoifAevoq dvefAWv re 


ayplovq iivac, <iv6pantov$ 9 er/ Se TroXv- 
l^cfja KCM rag VTTO (f)ap{AaKO)v 

eralpcov j&Ta/3oXa$, oia, TroXXa Kivo<; 

4. TOVT01 OVV VtV(Ji,V O7Ta(7l TOV 


opcov vfiy) viivyOeq ov TOVTO Kai TO!<; (f)iXo- 

el evo/Aiuav Xyo-eiv OVK 





Homer's Ulysses, who tells a long tale to o<fya. 9, 
Alcinous of the servitude of the winds, and of 
wild men with one eye in their foreheads that 
fed upon raw flesh, of beasts with many 
heads and the transformation of his friends ram 

capitis popu- 

by enchanted potions, all which he made the putmnt? 


silly Phaeakes believe for great sooth. 

This coming to my perusal, I could not con- 
demn ordinary men for lying, when I saw it in 
request amongst them that would be counted 
philosophical persons : yet could not but 
wonder at them, that, writing so manifest lies, 
they should not think to be taken with the 
manner ; and this made me also ambitious to 
leave some monument of myself behind me, 
that I might not be the only man exempted 
from this liberty of lying : and because I had 



ev raj [Jijv6o\ojiv 




vyvu>[AOveo"Tpov " KCLV ev jap 

ovro) 8' av 

Aeyow, on 


OATCO Kai TV/V Ttap 













5. Qp/j/f]6eis jap TTore airo ' 

v Kai afyetq $ TOV eaTtepiov co 



no matter of verity to employ my pen in (for 
nothing hath befallen me worth the writing), 
I turned my style to publish untruths, ^but 
with an honester mind than others have done : 
for this one thing I confidently pronounce for 
a truth, that I lie : and this, I hope, may be 
an excuse for all the rest, when I confess 
what I am faulty in : for I write of matters 
which I neither saw nor suffered, nor heard H professes 

himself a liar. 

by report from others, which are in no being, 
nor possible ever to have a beginning. Let 
no man therefore in any case give any credit 

tO them. Two moun- 

tains, one in 

Disanchoring on a time from the pillars %T e inAfri?a, 

on each side the 

of Hercules, the wind fitting me well for my %% 

12 AAHOOY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 5. 

) avejACp tov irXovv 7roiov(A7]v. a a e 
fji,oi ryg aTTofiyj/Aias KCM virodecri^ TJ ryj$ 

$ Ttepiepyia Kai 

TO fiovXecrOai [AaOe7v rl TO 

ecrri TOV WKeavou Kai Ttveg ol 

vOpooTTOi. TOVTOV ye p^e 


6 TUV rjlKlWTCOV 7T pO(T'KOl f rj(Ta J lJj f YjV TV)V CLVVYjV 

, eri &e 

TOV CLpKjTOv [Ji,i<j6u> 


purpose, I thrust into the West Ocean. The 
occasion that moved me to take such a voyage 
in hand was only a curiosity of mind, a desire 
of novelties, and a longing to learn out the 
bounds of the ocean, and what people inhabit 
the farther shore : for which purpose I made 
plentiful provision of victuals and fresh water, 
got fifty companions of the same humour to 
associate me in my travels, furnished myself 
with store of munition, gave a round sum of 
money to an expert pilot that could direct us 
in our course, and new rigged and repaired 
a tall ship strongly to hold a tedious and 
difficult journey. 

Thus sailed we forward a day and a night 
with a prosperous wind, and as long as we 

14 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 6. 

e. ^fjjepav {Ai> ovv Kai VVKT& ovplco 
en Ty$ yyt; inrofyaivopjevyq ov 

ia(x)g ovyyofiea, ry ejriovcry 

o re 

TO KvfjjCL yvfavero KCLI Zp 
oweT ov$e crre7Xa/ i^v oOovyv fivvarov 
. T7npe\];avT<; ovv rco 

evvea, KCLI /3$0[AyKOVTa, 

KXafi\];avTO$ TjK/ov Kadopcofiev ov 
vvjcrov iityXyv Kai a<re7av, ov rpa^el 
vviv ro3 KVfAaTi* KOI jap yfiy TO 


ovv Kai antofiavTeq co^ av K {AaKpa$ 


had any sight of land, made no great haste 
on our way ; but the next morrow about sun 
rising the wind blew high and the waves 
began to swell and a darkness fell upon us, 
so that we could not see to strike our sails, 
but gave our ship over to the wind and 
weather ; thus were we tossed in this tempest 
the space of threescore and nineteen days 
together. On the fourscorth day the sun upon 
a sudden brake out, and we descried not far 
off us an island full of mountains and woods, 
about the which the seas did not rage so 
boisterously, for the storm was now reasonably 
well calmed : there we thrust in and went on 

It was re- 

shore and cast ourselves upon the ground, and guisitethetem- 

pesl should 
i i . i , i continue thus 

so lay a long time, as utterly tired with our /*# and he 

sail altogether 

misery at sea: in the end we arose up and 

be asked the 

divided ourselves : thirty we left to guard our 

16 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIAZ. A. 7. 


em KaTao-KOTry roiv ev ry 

7. HpoeXOovT$ 8e OGOV crrod}iov$ Tpei$ onto 
TTVjs S/' vfa]$ cpu*/Aev riva o-rr/ 


voiq, Xeyovcrav u&Xpi TOVTCDV 



em Trerpa^ TO [Aev TrXeOpialov, TO 
Se eXaTTOv' e^oi So/ce7v, TO fiev TOV A/o- 

VVVOV TO [JtjlKpOTepOV, 6&TpOV 6 

' ovv TtoeiAev' OVTTO) 


oivov peovTi o/AoiOTaTcp pjoJkivTa, oioawep o 
<TTIV. ciOovov Se rv TO 



ship : myself and twenty more went to discover 
the island, and had not gone above three 
furlongs from the sea through a wood, but 
we saw a brazen pillar erected, whereupon 
Greek letters were engraven, though now much 
worn and hard to be discerned, importing, 
"Thus far travelled Hercules and Bacchus." 
There were also near unto the place two 
portraitures cut out in a rock, the one of the 
quantity of an acre of ground, the other less, 
which made me imagine the lesser to be 
Bacchus and the other Hercules : and giving 
them due adoration, we proceeded on our 
journey, and far we had not gone but we came 
to a river, the stream whereof seemed to run 
with as rich wine as any is made in Chios, An island 

J in the sEgizan 

if ,i liU ' 1 U1 sea, famous for 

and of a great breadth, in some places able to 

1 8 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 7. 

, (Jt)(TT 

ovv AV iroXv 


i TO, cryjeta, T Aiovvcrov e 


v Se fioi KCLL odev apteral o 

v^ awyeiv Trapa TO pevfAa, KCLI 

JV pjev ov${Aiav evpov avrov, 

pa e- Tvjv pifyw eKao-Tyv ameppei cnayaiv 
oivov $iavyov$, deft u>v eylvero o 

ev avraj 

Kai VYJV %poav KOA 

' <yovv aypevvav- 

v " a/jueXei Kai ava-re^ovre^ airrovg evplv- 

\ I ef / 

/AO-TOV<;. v&Tepov 


bear a ship, which made me to give the more 
credit to the inscription upon the pillar, when 
I saw such apparent signs of Bacchus's pere- 
grination. We then resolved to travel up 
the stream to find whence the river had his 
original, and when we were come to the 
head, no spring at all appeared, but mighty 
great vine-trees of infinite number, which 
from their roots distilled pure wine which 
made the river run so abundantly : the stream 
was also well stored with fish, of which we See our 

author's mod- 

took a few, in taste and colour much resem- #.> this 

carries more 
probability by 

bling wine, but as many as ate of them S ar > tha . n that f 

J a spring of 

t w * ne shotM 

fell drunk upon it ; for when they were opened ***** of the 
and cut up, we found them to be full of lees : 
afterwards we mixed some fresh water fish 

c 2 

20 AAHOOY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 8. 


TOV v$aTO$, Trapapjiyvvvreq etcepavvvfAev TO 

. Tore e TOV Trora/Aov $ia7rea(ravT$, 


ro [Jjev jap aTro TTJ<; 7%, o 
avrog evepvyq KCLI Tra^vq, TO &e 

, 0<TOV K 

e%ovcrai TeXe/a. TOKLVTVJV Trap 

ypafyovviv apTi TOV 'ATro 

onto 8e 

aKTvXa)v aKpcuv eefyvovTO avratg o 

KOA fJj(TTol Vj&OjV /3oTpV(Jt)V. KOA [hV} 

i Taq K(j)aXa$ cKOfAWv eXi^l re 


C, yjCTTta^ovTO re xai e$eiovvTO, al ^e 


with them, which allayed the strong taste of 
the wine. We then crossed the stream where 
we found it passable, and came among a world 
of vines of incredible number, which towards 
the earth had firm stocks and of a good 
growth ; but the tops of them were women, 
from the hip upwards, having all their propor- 
tion perfect and complete ; as painters picture 
out Daphne, who was turned into a tree when 
she was overtaken by Apollo; at their fingers' Haifavir- 

J gin and halj a 

ends sprung out branches full of grapes, and 
the hair of their heads was nothing else but 
winding wires and leaves, and clusters of 
grapes. When we were come to them, they 
saluted us and joined hands with us, and 
spake unto us some in the Lydian and some 


, OA Se 'ivS/Aroyv, a/ 7rXe/"oT&/ 8e 
*EXXaa fywyv Trpoiefievai. KOA 

T/Ka efAeOve KCLI 

ov 7rape%ov rov Kapjrov, 


UTreXvovro, aXX* CK TCOV a/8o/a>v e&e 

crvvefyuovro jap KOA crvveppi^ovvTO, KUI ^ 

avrolq ArXaSo/ eTtefyuKearav ol fiaKrvXoi KOA 

TrepnrXexo/Aevoi ocrov 


8e avrov$ em vavv 

ra re aXXa /ca/ 


in the Indian language, but most of them in 
Greek : they also kissed us with their mouths, 
but he that was so kissed fell drunk, and was , Ma y m , en 

nave thus lost 
them- elves, in 

not his own man a good while after: they the yielding to 

J the bewitching 
. Mir enticements of 

could not abide to have any fruit pulled from * and wo- 

them, but would roar and cry out pitifully 
if any man offered it. Some of them desired 
to have carnal mixture with us, and two of 
our company were so bold as to entertain 
their offer, and could never afterwards be 
loosed from them, but were knit fast together 
at their nether parts, from whence they grew 
together and took root together, and their 
fingers began to spring out with branches 
and crooked wires as if they were ready to 
bring out fruit : whereupon we forsook them 
and fled to our ships, and told the company at 
our coming what had betide unto us, how our 

24 AAH90Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 10. 


uftpV<TafAVOi re 


6?n r*ij$ vfiovoq av 


VYJV vaZv KCLI /AeTecDplcras ocrov 


/V TO TreXayog, c?XX' a 

avejuuog e/ATreo-CDV rolq i<rrloi$ 


KVpTO)(ra$ rr/n 

ev TO> aepi 

XafAirpav xai (r^aipoeifiy KOA 


fellows were entangled, and of their copulation 
with the vines. Then we took certain of our 
vessels and filled them, some with water and 
some with wine out of the river, and lodged 
for that night near the shore. 

On the morrow we put to sea again, the 
wind serving us weakly, but about noon, when 
we had lost sight of the island, upon a sudden 
a whirlwind caught us, which turned our ship 
round about, and lifted us up some three 
thousand furlongs into the air, and suffered 
us not to settle again into the sea, but we 
hung above ground, and were carried aloft 
with a mighty wind which filled our sails The island 

of the Moon. 

strongly. Thus for seven days' space and so 
many nights were we driven along in that 
manner, and on the eighth day we came in 

26 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIAZ. A. n. 


\ i / 

re /^a/ yewpyovfievyv. Tj^epaq 

ovv ovfiev avroOev KaOecopcofAev, vvicrog 
vys etya/vovro yiuv KCLI aXXai 
wj<rot TrXycriov, a! p^ev (telfyvg, al 

{UK pore pat, jrvpi TTJV %poav 

KOA aXXy Se ng yvj KMTCD KOM TroXeig ev 

avry KCU Trora/^ovg %ov<ra KCLI 

KOA vXa$ KOA opy. ravryv ovv TVJV 

11. oaV &6 VAV Kai Tl 

avro7$ KaXov/Aevoig ancavryja-avTeq. 01 
OVTOI elcriv avfipeg em yv7ra>v 


view of a great country in the air, like to a What 

J blew them 

. . . . , , r , . 1-1 thither. 

shining island, of a round proportion, gloriously 
glittering with light, and approaching to it, we 
there arrived, and took land, and surveying the 
country, we found it to be both inhabited and 
husbanded : and as long as the day lasted we He closel v 

J taxes thetr 

1 . _ . opinion who 

could see nothing" there, but when night was hold the sun, 

Moon, and 
, 1 . . 1 - Stars to be 

come many other islands appeared unto us, inhabited 


some greater and some less, all of the colour of 
fire, and another kind of earth underneath, in 
which were cities and seas and rivers and 
woods and mountains, which we conjectured 
to be the earth by us inhabited : and going 
further into the land, we were met withal and 
taken by those kind of people which they call 
Hippogypians. These Hippogypians are men s f g nff e in d g 


riding upon monstrous vultures, which they 

28 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. n. 

v o^ovp^evoi KOA KaOairep e lim:oiq 
opveoiq %pa){Avor [AeyaXoi jap 01 

8' av TI$ TO /Aeyedos a,vj)v evrevOev' 
yap /AeyaXys (>opTi$o$ ICTTOV exacnov 

TCOV Tnepcov f^OjKpoTepov Kai 7ra%vTepov 
(frepovcri. Tovroiq ovv Tolq 'lirTroyvTroig Trpocr- 
reraKrai 7repnreTO/Aevoi$ ryv yv/v, el T/ 
evpeOeiy &evo<;, dvayeiv a><; TOV fiacriXea* 
KOA ty KOA Tji^aq %vXXapovT<; avasyovviv 
co^ avrov. o Se Oeacra/juevo^ Kai diro 


dpa, (f) r //, v^elq, co evoi ; 

Se, rioi^ ovv dty/KecrOe, e^, roaovrov depa 

; Kai y/Ae7$ TO Ttdv avrto 
' Kai o$ dpapjevo<; TO KaO* av- 


use instead of horses : for the vultures there 

and so are the 
rest that follow, 

are exceeding- great, every one with three a es fo ^ 

J and composed 

for his tur- 

heads apiece : you may imagine their greatness p. 
by this, for every feather in their wings was 
bigger and longer than the mast of a tall ship : 
their charge was to fly about the country, and 
all the strangers they found to bring them to 
the king : and their fortune was then to seize 
upon us, and by them we were presented to 
him. As soon as he saw us, he conjectured by 
our habit what countrymen we were, and said, 
Are not you, strangers, Grecians ? which when 
we affirmed, And how could you make way, 
said he, through so much air as to get hither ? 
Then we delivered the whole discourse of our 
fortunes to him ; whereupon he began to tell 

30 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 12. 

(OV ' 

KOA dcf)i- 

eKelvvjv eXeye vqv ypAV K&TO) 

XXa Qappelv re 
KCLI {AVjeva Kivtiwov vfyopci- 
crBat' Travra jap y/Aiv TrapecrecrOai 

12. Hv e xai KaTOpOojo-d), efyy, rov Tro 

fAOV, OV K())pa) VVV TTpO$ TOVq TOV 7/XlOV 

, airavTCDv evfiai/AOvecrTaTa Trap* 

ve$ re eiev ol TroXe/Aioi KCLI VYJV 
i< " O 8e 

i o 

ev TO) oX/o) KaroiKovvrcDv 


us likewise of his own adventures, how that 

he also was a man, by name Endymion, and ft****- c. 

rapt up long since from the earth as he was 

asleep, and brought hither, where he was 

made king of the country, and said it was 

that region which to us below seemed to be 

the moon ; but he bade us be of good cheer 

King of the 

and fear no danger, for we should want nothing 
we stood in need of : and if the war he was 
now in hand withal against the sun succeeded 
fortunately, we should live with him in the 
highest degree of happiness. Then we asked 
of him what enemies he had, and the cause of 
the quarrel: and he answered, Phaethon, the The son of 

Phoebus and 

king of the inhabitants of the sun (for that 

ed leave to ride 

is also peopled as well as the moon), hath made 


32 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 12. 

oiKe7rai jap fiy KaKeivot; (jj&Tre Kai 

%povov. Tjp^aro &e e^ ah lag 

TCOV V T7 &>Y T eAT 7TOT6 

(rvvayayojv e/SovXydyv 
$ TOV e Ea)o-()oov crreJXai, ovra 


Kara fiecrov TOV iropov WKavTyjO'aq TTI rcov 


ov jap yfAev avT/TraXoi ry 


TOV TroXefAOv Kai 
TTJV djroiKiav. v]v ovv e^eX^re, 
fjjOi TOV cnoXov, jvjrag Se 
TCOV /3a<nXiKa)v eva, exacTTa Kai ryv 


war against us a long time upon this occasion : * fa 

chariot, though 

I once assembled all the poor people and needy St, & kL 

unskilful driv- 
, i i ' ine scorched a 

persons within my dominions, purposing to great part of 

both heaven 

send a colony to inhabit the Morning Star, 

fore struck 

because the country was desert and had nobody ^^^ y 

Jupiter. OVID. 

dwelling in it. This Phaethon envying, crossed Met - 
me in my design, and sent his Hippomyrmicks 
to meet with us in the midway, by whom we 
were surprised at that time, being not prepared 
for an encounter, and were forced to retire : 
now therefore my purpose is once again to 
denounce war and publish a plantation of 
people there : if therefore you will participate 
with us in our expedition, I will furnish you 
every one with a prime vulture and all 
armour answerable for service, for to-morrow 

34 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIAZ. A. 13. 


v eyco, ytyvecrOa), eTreify croi 

13. Tore pev ovv Trap avTOJ e 


vlov eivai TOV$ 7roXe/Aiov$. TO [Aev ovv 


VOVTO avev TU>V crKevooaiv KCLI TO>V 


ol 'iTnroyvTroi, fiicr/Avpioi e 01 

opveov e /ca/ TOVTO 


Xacriov, ra &e 


we must set forwards. With all our hearts, 
said I, if it please you. Then were we feasted 
and abode with him, and in the morning . The , mor - 

o mg there, out 
the evening 

arose to set ourselves in order of battle, for here - 
our scouts had given us knowledge that the 
enemy was at hand. Our forces in number 
amounted to an hundred thousand, besides 
such as bare burthens and engineers, and the 
foot forces and the strange aids : of these, 
fourscore thousand were Hippogypians, and 
twenty thousand that rode upon Lachanopters, The number 

J of their forces, 

which is a mighty great fowl, and instead of 
feathers covered thick over with wort leaves ; 
but their wing feathers were much like the 
leaves of lettuces : after them were placed the 
Cenchrobolians and the Scorodomachians : 

D 2 

36 AAH00YZ I2TOPIA2. A. 13. 


KOA ol ^,KOpo$o[Aa%oi. yXQov e avrco KCLI 

onto ' 

Se ' 

TOVTCDV ft 01 fiV QvXXOTO^OTai 7Tl 

, oQev KCLI 

' 6 ' 

ocrov a)e/ca eeavres o 

(Lev e/er/, fapovTai e ev ro5 aepi 

avev Trreojv' o 



icrria fyepovcai co&Trep ra (TKacfyq. ra 

S' ol TOIOVTOI ev Ta7$ {Aa%ai$ 

eia iv. eXeyovTO Se KOM air TOJV vjrep T*YJV 


there came also to aid us from the Bear Star 
thirty thousand Psyllotoxotans, and fifty 
thousand Anemodromians : these Psyllotoxo- 
tans ride upon great fleas, of which they have 
their denomination, for every flea among them 
is as big as a dozen elephants : the Anemo- 
dromians are footmen, yet flew in the air 
without feathers in this manner : every man 
had a large mantle reaching down to his foot, 
which the wind blowing against, filled it like 
a sail, and they were carried along as if they 
had been boats : the most part of these in 
fight were targeteers. It was said also that 
there were expected from the stars over 
Cappadocia threescore and ten thousand 
Struthobalanians and five thousand Hippo- 

38 AAH60YZ I2TOPIAZ. A. 14, 15. 

eTTTaKicr/Avpioi, iTTTTOjepavoi 8e 

eyco OVK eOeavatATiv " oi 

ya/ 5 

avraJv eToX/Av/cra. Tpa,(TTia yap 
Trepi avTCov 

14. Ary {Ai> y TOV 
yv. crKevy &e Trdvrcov yj avrq Kpawq 

a7ro TOv Kva{A(t)v /Aeyaoi jap Trap 
ol Kv&fjjOi Kai Kaprepol' 6a)paKe$ 
7ravT$ OepfAivoi " ra jap 
TCOV BepfACDv <Tvppa7novT$ TTOiouvrai 
6a)paKa$' appy/KTOv 8' e/ce7 jljverai TOV 
6ep/AOv TO Xeirog aj 

ola ra 

8e Kaipog yv, eraBavro ct)e* 


TO JbV QIOV Ka 0l> 01 


geranians, but I had no sight of them, for 

they were not yet come, and therefore I 

durst write nothing, though wonderful and 

incredible reports were given out of them. 

This was the number of Endymion's army; 

the furniture was all alike ; their helmets of 

bean hulls, which are great with them and 

very strong; their breastplates all of lupins 

cut into scales, for they take the shells of 

lupins, and fastening them together, make 

breastplates of them which are impenetrable 

and as hard as any horn : their shields and The order 

of Endymion 's 

swords like to ours in Greece : and when the battle ' 
time of battle was come, they were ordered in 
this manner. The right wing was supplied by 
the Hippogypians, where the king himself was 

40 AAH6OY2 IZTOPIAZ. A. 16. 

o /3a<riXev$ Tovg aplffrovg Ttepi avrov 
ev TOVTOK; yfiev ' ro e 

VO)VV{AOV 01 Aa%aV07TTpOl' TO &e (AeGOV 01 



xai p^ejaXoi ywovrat TroXv 

KacrTO$ (AelZcov. TOVTOK; 


TOV Eaxrfapov depa. cog e 

KGM itebiw eiroivjcrav, em 

TOVTOV TtapeTa^e TO Trefyv' opye/ro 
NvKTpia)v o Ev$iavaKTO<; 

16. Tcov Se TroXejutsicov TO 
ei%ov ol 'iTntofAuppjVjKeq xai ev avTog o 


in person with the choicest soldiers in the 
army, among whom we also were ranged : the 
Lachanopters made the left wing, and the 
aids were placed in the main battle as every 
man's fortune fell : the foot, which in number 
were about six thousand myriads, were dis- 
posed of in this manner : there are many 
spiders in those parts of mighty bigness, 
every one in quantity exceeding one of the 
Islands Cyclades : these were appointed to 

Sea. in number 

spin a web in the air between the Moon and I3 - 
the Morning Star, which was done in an 
instant, and made a plain champaign upon 
which the foot forces were planted, \vho had 
for their leader Nycterion, the son of Eudianax, The order 

J ' of Phaethon's 


and two other associates. 

But of the enemy's side the left wing con- 
sisted of the Hippomyrmicks, and among them 


AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 16. 

<bae6a)v' Ov/pla 8e eor/ ^e 

Tolq Trap ypAv (wpp/rfei 7rpo(7eoiKOTa 

TOV fieyeOovs ' o yap ^e 

yv. ep,a%ovTO e ov [AQVOV ol 

, aXXa KCM avTOi fAaXi&ra 








, 7C\7ji> 
KOA o 


\fsiXol re ovteq 
pafyavl^aq virep- 
ovft eir oXiyov 

TIVO$ TO) Tpav/AaTi 


Phaethon himself: these are beasts of huge 
bigness and winged, carrying the resemblance 
of our emmets, but for their greatness : for 
those of the largest size were of the quantity 
of two acres, and not only the riders supplied 
the place of soldiers, but they also did much 
mischief with their horns : they were in number 
fifty thousand. In the right wing were ranged 
the Aeroconopes, of which there were also 
about fifty thousand, all archers riding upon 
great gnats : then followed the Aerocardakes, 
who were light armed and footmen, but good 
soldiers, casting out of slings afar off huge 
great turnips, and whosoever was hit with 
them lived not long after, but died with the 
stink that proceeded from their wounds : it is 

44 AAH60Y2 IZTOPIAZ. A. 16. 


e avrcov era^Oycrav 01 


Se KavXo{AVKyT$, ori 
pen (AVKyTivaig e^pcovro, fiopacri e 


01 TOV 

Xioi xai OVTOI, av$pe<; 

ovq re aTTo Tov TaXa&ov /jueT7re{A 



ox/)eXov" ol 
rai Se ov$e oXcog irapeyevovTO, faomp 


said they use to anoint their bullets with 
the poison of mallows. After them were 
placed the Caulomycetes, men-at-arms and 
good at hand strokes, in number about 
fifty thousand : they are called Caulomycetes 
because their shields were made of mush- 
rooms and their spears of the stalks of the 
herb asparagus : near unto them were placed 
the Cynobalanians, that were sent from the 
Dogstar to aid him : these were men with 
dogs' faces, riding upon winged acorns : but 
the slingers that should have come out of 
Via Lactea, and the Nephelocentaurs came too 
short of these aids, for the battle was done 
before their arrival, so that they did them no 
good : and indeed the slingers came not at 

4 6 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 17. 

avtoq vvrepov opjiaevra TOV 

%a>pav. Toiavry pev Kai o 

Se eTreifiy TO, 
KCLI a/Ko'avTO eKareCDv ol ovoi 

rovroig jap ami craXTriyKTcov 




linroyuTrovs, KOLI 


TOV 7Tl TO) 

6ov 01 ' 

OOVVTCDV efyvyov eyKXlvavreq, KCLI 

67T61 yvOoVTO TOVC, 7Tl TCO 


all, wherefore they say Phaethon in displeasure 
over-ran their country. These were the forces 
that Phaethon brought into the field : and 
when they were joined in battle, after the 
signal was given, and when the asses on 
either side had brayed (for these are to them 
instead of trumpets), the fight began, and 
the left wing of the Heliotans, or Sun soldiers, 
fled presently and would not abide to receive 
the charge of the Hippogypians, but turned 
their backs immediately, and many were put 
to the sword : but the right wing of theirs 
were too hard for our left wing, and drove 
them back till they came to our footmen, who 
joining with them, made the enemies there 
also turn their backs and fly, especially when 
they found their own left wing to be over- 

48 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 18. 

TroXXoi {Lev 

&e Kai avypovvTQ, KCM TO 
iroXv /LEV em TOJV vetyajv, cocrre 

KCM epvOpa 
$vo{ivov TOV yXl 
Se KCLI elq TVJV yyv KO*T carafe v, 

OX7T6 y666 eiKO,%iV, (AT/ a pa TOtOVTOV 

i TtaXai ava) yevo/Aevov ' 
Xafiev a'l/Aan vaai rov A/a CTTI TCO TOV 
vo Oavarc. 


81/0 rpoiraia ecrTycra/Aev, TO {Lev eiri 

, TO 

<K; em T&V vefy&v. apTi Se TOV- 




thrown. Thus were they wholly discomfited 
on all hands ; many were taken prisoners, 
and many slain ; much blood was spilt ; some 
fell upon the clouds, which made them look 
of a red colour, as sometimes they appear to 
us about sun-setting ; some dropped down 
upon the earth, which made me suppose it 
was upon some such occasion that Homer 
thought Jupiter rained blood for the death of ILIAD,. 
his son Sarpedon. Returning from the pur- 
suit, we erected two trophies : one for the 
fight on foot, which we placed upon the 
spiders' web : the other for the fight in the 
air, which we set up upon the clouds. As 
soon as this was done, news came to us by 
our scouts that the Nephelocentaurs were 
coming on, which indeed should have come 

5 o 










{Ay TO) KOA amia-rov 



e avrcov o e/c 









to Phaethon before the fight. And when they 
drew so near unto us that we could take full 
view of them, it was a strange sight to behold 
such monsters, composed of flying horses and 
men : that part which resembled mankind, 
which was from the waist upwards, did equal 
in greatness the Rhodian Colossus, and that 
which was like a horse was as big as a great 
ship of burden : and of such multitude that 
I was fearful to set down their number lest 
it might be taken for a lie : and for their 
leader they had the Sagittarius out of the c hiron fa 

J Centaur, ivho 

was translated 

Zodiac. When they heard that their friends into heav ^. 

and made one 
i i T-.I of the \2 signs 

were foiled, they sent a messenger to Phaethon of the zodiac. 
to renew the fight : whereupon they set them- 
selves in array, and fell upon the Selenitans or 
the Moon soldiers that were troubled, and 

5 2 

AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 19. 




Kai ra 



ajrav TO VTTO TCOV pa^vcv 

era/pew %&yp f iy<7av. 




e irapyv KOA o 

Tpoiraia VTT e/ce/- 
ovv aTryyo/ieda, e$ 



19. O/ 6 TTO\lOpKlV [LV OVK e 


TOV depo$ a7reTi%ifyv, coo-re [Ay/ten 
diro rov HX/ov 
TO Se 




disordered in following the chase, and scattered 
in gathering the spoils, and put them all to 
flight, and pursued the king into his city, and 
killed the greatest part of his birds, overturned 
the trophies he had set up, and overcame the 
whole country that was spun by the spiders. 
Myself and two of my companions were taken 
alive. When Phaethon himself was come they 
set up other trophies in token of victory, and 
on the morrow we were carried prisoners into 
the Sun, our arms bound behind us with a 
piece of the cobweb : yet would they by no 
means lay any siege to the city, but returned 
and built up a wall in the midst of the air 
to keep the light of the Sun from falling upon 
the Moon, and they made it a double wall, The 

of the Moons 

wholly compact of clouds, so that a manifest *"' 



eyeyovei Ka VVKTI lyveKe Tracra KaTe%TO 
Trie^ofAevo*; e TOVTOI$ o 
iKTV KaOaipe7v TO oiKofto 

Trepiopav ev CT/COTOD 
e Kai fyopovq 


KOI ofw/povg 7ri rovroig ^ovvai y 



20. ,,Kara 

opyy$, TV) varepaia Se 
Kai eyevero y eipyvy e?r/ 


ol (rv/A{Aa%oi 7rpo<; 

TOV$ o-vfipa^ovq, eiri TOJ KaraXi/crai 

TO $iaTetio-Aa Kal 


eclipse of the Moon ensued, and all things 
detained in perpetual night : wherewith 
Endymion was so much oppressed that he 
sent ambassadors to entreat the demolishing 
of the building, and beseech him that he 
would not damn them to live in darkness, 
promising to pay him tribute, to be his friend 
and associate, and never after to stir against 
him. Phaethon's council twice assembled to 
consider upon this offer, and in their first 
meeting would remit nothing of their conceived 
displeasure, but on the morrow they altered 
their minds to these terms. "The Heliotans 
and their colleagues have made a peace with 
the Selenitans and their associates upon these 
conditions, that the Heliotans shall cast down 
the wall, and deliver the prisoners that they 

56 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 20. 

<; TVJV ^eXyvyv e<7/3aXXe/v, a?ro- 
fiovvai fie Kat rov$ al%[AaXa)TOvg pr/rov 




TK; eTriy ' fyopov fie v7TOTeXe7v eKacrrov 
TOV$ TOV /3ao-iXea TOW SeX^v/rcov TOJ 
/3ao*/Xe7 TCOV 'HX/coTow tipovov d ^fyo peat; 

xai Qp/ypovq fie cr(f)(L>v 

fiovvai fwp/ovg, tyv fie asnoiKiav 

TOV 'EaMTcfiopov KOiwYjv 7ro/e7cr^a/ KOA /Aere- 

rdiv aXXcov TOV 

ev [Aecra) roi aepi eir] 


have taken upon a ratable ransom : and that 

the Selenitans should leave the other stars 

at liberty, and raise no war against the 

Heliotans, but aid and assist one another if 

either of them should be invaded : that the 

king of the Selenitans should yearly pay to 

the king of the Heliotans in way of tribute ten 

thousand vessels of dew, and deliver ten 

thousand of their people to be pledges for 

their fidelity : that the colony to be sent to 

the Morning Star should be jointly supplied 

by them both, and liberty given to any else 

that would to be sharers in it : that these 

articles of peace should be engraven in a 

pillar of amber, to be erected in the midst 

of the air upon the confines of their country : 

for the performance whereof were sworn of These names 

of the inhabi- 

58 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 21. 


/vio^ KOA 

21. To/aur^ />cev ^ elpv/vy eyevero 

asTrefiocrav. eiret Se aiKOAeGa 

(ATa fiaKpVCOV 01 T6 Ta7pOl 

o Ej>5ty<6/a>v avroq. Kai o pev 

re Trap avTCp Kai K0ivcove7v 

TOV eavrov 7ra7$a' ^WOAK^.^ jap OVK elvi 

Kara) e 




the Heliotans, Pyronides and Therites and '* f f f' 

J OM are taken 

from things 

Phlogius : and of the Selenitans, Nyctor and waging to 

J the day; those 

. of the Moon 

Menius and Polylampes. Thus was the peace from things 

appertaining to 

concluded, the wall immediately demolished, 
and we that were prisoners delivered. Being 
returned into the Moon, they came forth 
to meet us, Endymion himself and all his 
friends, who embraced us with tears, and 
desired us to make our abode with him, and 
to be partners in the colony, promising to 
give me his own son in marriage (for there are 
no women amongst them), which I by no 
means would yield unto, but desired of all 
loves to be dismissed again into the sea, 
and he finding it impossible to persuade us 
to his purpose, after seven days' feasting, 
gave us leave to depart. 

6o AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 22. 

22. *"A e ev TOJ uueraZv $iaTl3a>v ev 

fl KaTevovjcra Kaiva KUI 
TUVTO, j3ovXo{Aai 6/Ve7v. TrpuJTa fiev TO 
K yvvaixcov yevvoicrOai avrovg, aXX' onto 

roJv appevajv * ja^oiq yap TOiq appeal 

~ \ ?<\\ V \ tt. 

Icracri. t tev ovv Ttevre KOA 

ercov ae7rai e/cacrro^, diro e TOVTCDV 


ev TOjl acrTOKvAiai " eTre/Sav yap 

py TO epfipvov, 7ra%vveTai ^ KvyfLT], 

%povct) v&Tepov &vatjTe[jijOVTe$ e^ayovcri 
a, K6ei>Te<; e avTa irpoq TOV 


OTI Trap eKevoig &VT 


Now, what strange novelties worthy of 

o J novelties he 

observed in 

note I observed during the time of my abode thoseparts. 
there, I will relate unto you. The first is, that 
they are not begotten of women, but of man- 
kind : for they have no other marriage but 
of males : the name of women is utterly 
unknown among them : until they accomp- 
lish the age of five and twenty years, they 
are given in marriage to others : from that 
time forwards they take others in marriage 
to themselves : for as soon as the infant is 
conceived the leg begins to swell, and after- 
wards when the time of birth is come, they 
give it a lance and take it out dead : then they 
lay it abroad with open mouth towards the why that 

part which we 

wind, and so it takes life : and I think thereof 'Is^iMby'the 

Grecians the 

the Grecians call it the belly of the leg, because u" y of the 

62 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIAZ. A. 23. 


yevoq eoT/ Trap avTo$ 
ol K&\ovp,evoi Aevfipirai, ylveTai 6 
TOV TpoTtov TOVTOV' op%iv avGpamov rov 

ev (frvTevovcriv, CK 

K&pTtoq ecrn 


TO j^eeOo. 67re/&av ovv 

, 01 

v\wa, Kat S/a TOVTCDV o%evovcri KOA 

yaj&Tai$ Tolq eavTCOv. 
23. 'E7re/Sav Se yvjpacr'fl o av6pa)7ro$, OVK 



therein they bear their children instead of 
a belly. I will tell you now of a thing more 
strange than this. There are a kind of men 
among them called Dendritans, which are 
begotten in this manner : they cut out the 
right stone out of a man's cod, and set it in 
their ground, from which springeth up a 
great tree of flesh, with branches and leaves, 
bearing a kind of fruit much like to an acorn, 
but of a cubit in length, which they gather 
when they are ripe, and cut men out of them : 
their privy members are to be set on and 
taken off as they have occasion : rich men 
have them made of ivory, poor men of wood, 
wherewith they perform the act of generation 
and accompany their spouses. 

When a man is come to his full age he dieth 

64 AAH60Y2 I2TOPIAZ. A. 23. 

dyp ylverai. tpofyy] Se 

* eTreifiav jap irvp dva/<avo-a)0'i, fiar- 

elcriv ev TO> 



. (T/TCO (JjV $V) T p- 


o0A//3c / &oev0 e^ KvXiKa vypov avieiq 
^povov. ov [AVJV amvpovcrt ye KCU 

' aXX ov$e TVJV crvvovcrlav ol 
ev Talq f e$pai$ Trape^ovviv, aAX' ev 

tyvvviv vjrep TVJV jacn pOKvypjl&v ' Kel 

yap e(7i TerpvjfAevoi. Kao Se 


p avTolq yv TTOV n$ $>aXaKpo$ xai 


not, but is dissolved like smoke and is turned 

into air. One kind of food is common to them Their food. 

all, for they kindle a fire and broil frogs upon the 

coals, which are with them in infinite numbers 

flying in the air, and whilst they are broiling, 

they sit round about them as it were about a 

table, and lap up the smoke that riseth from 

them, and feast themselves therewith, and 

this is all their feeding. For their drink they Their drink. 

have air beaten in a mortar, which yieldeth 

a kind of moisture much like unto dew. They 

have no avoidance of excrements, either of 

urine or dung, neither have they any issue 

for that purpose like unto us. Their boys 

admit copulation, not like unto ours, but 
in their hams, a little above the calf of 
the leg, for there they are open. They hold 

66 AAH0OY2 IZTOPIAZ. A. 24. 

* v fc v 
^, TOV$ be 

7Tl 8e TtOV 


jap Tive$, 01 KCLI ire pi eKelvwv 

KCfji (A f r]v KM jeveiotj (f)vov(ri [AiKpov iirep ra 


it ay-re q elvi 

viiep 8e ra$ irvjaq exacTTa) avTCu 
eK7re(f)VK paKpa (ZcTTrep ovpa, OaXXovcra e 

dei Kai VTTTIOV avaTrhrrovro^ ov 

24. ' ATTOfAVTTOVTai 6 

y TTOVUHTIV y yvpjvatlpvTai, ya- 

irav TO crtofAa iftpovaiv, ajcrre 

rvpov$ dii avTov TtyyvvcrOai, oXiyov TOV 
[AeXtTO<; 7no"ra%avTe$ * eXaiov Se TTOIOVVTCU 


it a great ornament to be bald, for hairy Because that 

J Comets seem 
to be hairy, 

persons are abhorred with them, and yet and have their 

name from 

among the stars that are comets it is thought 
commendable, as some that have travelled 
those coasts reported unto us. Such beards 
as they have are growing a little above their 
knees. They have no nails on their feet, for 
their whole foot is all but one toe. Every 
one of them at the point of his rump hath a 
long colewort growing out instead of a tail, 
always green and flourishing, which though 
a man fall upon his back, cannot be broken. 
The dropping of their noses is more sweet than 
honey. When they labour or exercise them- 
selves, they anoint their body with milk, 
whereinto if a little of that honey chance to 
drop, it will be turned into cheese. They 

F 2 


\ ~ 

airo T(*)v KpofA/AvcDV Travv Xmapov re Kat 

v$pofyopov<;' cu yap pouyeq 
e\<Jiv wcrTre aXa^a, KCLI 

K/va$, Tore Ttpoq y][jjoi$ Kara- 

TCOV /3o- 

v. ry [AevTOi ye ya&rpi ova 

TiOevreg ev avTy ocrwv 
yap avroig avry Kat TraXiv 

' V 

Kai \avioq eo"riv 9 cocrre Kai 

veoyva, eirei^av piyuxriv, e$ ravT/iv VTTO- 

6 Tolq (Av TrXovo-lots vaXt 



make very fat oil of their beans, and of as 

delicate a savour as any sweet ointment. They 

have many vines in those parts, which yield 

them but water : for the grapes that hang upon 

the clusters are like our hailstones : and I verily 

think that when the vines there are shaken 

with a strong wind, there falls a storm of hail h j/ ie cause of 

amongst us by the breaking down of those 

kind of berries. Their bellies stand them 

instead of satchels to put in their necessaries, 

which they may open and shut at their 

pleasure, for they have neither liver nor any 

kind of entrails, only they are rough and hairy 

within, so that when their young children are 

cold, they may be enclosed therein to keep 

them warm. The rich men have garments 

70 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 25. 

jap Ta eKel %u>pia Kai epya- 

TOV (L\KOV V^dTl V7TO3aVT 60(7- 

ra epia. Trepi (AevTOi TOJV 
diovq e%ov(7iv, OATVCO ^ev e/7re7v, 

TO amo-rov TOV Xoyov. 


^ KCLI o /3ovXo/Avo$ e^e- 

rovg avTOv TvtyXwTTei ecrr av 

ifieiv' oiiTO) 8' v6e/Ai>o$ opa,' KCLI 

TOV$ a^)Tpovq aTio\(TCLVTe^ Trap 

opajcriv. elvi 8' 0*1 KOA 7roXXov<; 
e%ov<iiv, ol TrXovcrioi. TO, com &e 
tyvXXa evTtv avTol$ TrXyv ye 

TO!<; djro reoV /SaXaz^cov* eKelvoi jap 


of glass, very soft and delicate : the poorer 
sort of brass woven, whereof they have great 
plenty, which they enseam with water to make 
it fit for the workman, as we do our wool. If 
I should write what manner of eyes they have, 
I doubt I should be taken for a liar in publish- 
ing a matter so incredible : yet I cannot choose 
but tell it : for they have eyes to take in and The like is 

feigned by the 
1-i-t 11 . Poets of the 

out as please themselves : and when a man is Gorg, three 

sisters that had 

so disposed, he may take them out and lay fe/aJT/^ 

which they 

them by till he have occasion to use them, and wf en ^ *tS 

went abroad. 

then put them in and see again : many when 
they have lost their own eyes, borrow of others, 
for the rich have many lying by them. Their 
ears are all made of the leaves of plane-trees, 
excepting those that come of acorns, for they 
only have them made of wood. 

72 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 26, 27. 

26. Ka/ ^v Ara/ aXXo 6avj&a, ev 
/80K7/Xe/o/ edeacra/Ayv' KMTOTTTpov 
Kefrai vjrep (f)peaTO$ ov TT&VV 
ev ovv eq TO (f)peap Kara/3^ TI$, dtcovei 

TCOV Trap y/iiv ev TTJ 
, eav Se eq TO KCLTOirTpov a 
fiev 7roAe/, Travra Se eOvvj opci 


eya) eOeao-a/Ayv K&I Trao-av TTJV 
el Se KMKeivoi efie ewpcov, OVK %CD TO 

OCTTI<; e TavTa (Ay TTICT- 



27. Tore 8 QVV acrTracra/Aevoi TQV 


I saw also another strange thing in the same 
court : a mighty great glass lying upon the top 
of a pit of no great depth, whereinto, if any 
man descend, he shall hear everything that is 
spoken upon the earth : if he but look into 
the glass, he shall see all cities and all nations 
as well as if he were among them. There 
had I the sight of all my friends and the whole 
country about : whether they saw me or not 
I cannot tell : but if they believe it not to be 
so, let them take the pains to go thither them- 
selves and they shall find my words true. 
Then we took our leaves of the king and such 
as were near him, and took shipping and 
departed : at which time Endymion bestowed 
upon me two mantles made of their glass, and 

74 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 28. 

[JjV TOJV VCLkiv&V %lTO)Va)V, TTEVTe 6 

, KCLI TravoTrXiav QeAlvtV, a Trdvra ev 



28. Ev &e TO) TrapaTrXcp TroXXag [Aev KOI 


TOV V}\IQV ev %ptp 

ov jap asnefi'YjfAev Kalroi TroXXa raiv era/- 

o avjjO< OVK 

. eOeai/AeOa fAevroi VYJV %a)pav ev 


Se T^oi 



five of brass, with a complete armour of those 
shells of lupins, all which I left behind me in 
the whale : and sent with us a thousand of his 
Hippogypians to conduct us five hundred 
furlongs on our way. In our course we 
coasted many other countries, and lastly 
arrived at the Morning Star now newly 
inhabited, where we landed and took in fresh 
water : from thence we entered the Zodiac, 
passing by the Sun, and, leaving it on our 
right hand, took our course near unto the shore, 
but landed not in the country, though our 
company did much desire it, for the wind 
would not give us leave : but We saw it was a 
flourishing region, fat and well watered, 
abounding with all delights : but the Nephelo- 
centaurs espying us, who were mercenary 


] TOJ> 

Qovri, 7r7TT7]o-ai> em vtjv vowv 

e KCLI ol iTTTToyviroi aTT 


irepi ecnrepOjV 

jv Av%vo7ToXiv KaXov/Aevy/v, rfiv] TOV Kara) 

$1(JDKOVT$. 7] 6 TToX/^ aVTTj KCITOU 

v rov ITXe/aScov KOA TOV 'Ta 

TtoXv TOV 

KOV. a7roavT e vcoTTOv ^ev ov 


KCLI ev TV} wyopci Kai Trepi TOV 

elitelv TrevyTas, oXiyov$ Se TCOV 

v xai 


soldiers to Phaethon, made to our ship as fast 
as they could, and finding us to be friends, 
said no more unto us, for our Hyppogypians 
were departed before. Then we made for- 
wards all the next night and day, and about 
evening-tide following we came to a city called 
Lychnopolis, still holding on our course down- e cif y f 
wards. This city is seated in the air between 
the Pleiades and the Hyades, somewhat lower 
than the Zodiac, and arriving there, not a man 
was to be seen, but lights in great numbers 
running to and fro, which were employed, some 
in the market place, and some about the haven, 
of which many were little, and as a man may 
say, but poor things ; some again were great 
and mighty, exceeding glorious and resplen- 

78 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 29. 

01 OjvOpunroi) KCLI (f)a)vvjv 7rpo'ie[Aeva)v 

yjKOvo/Aev, KCM ovftev vj/Aois yftiKOvv, a 
KOA em %ev!a exaXovv ' ypjelq Se 

ovre &6/7rvo-a/ olre 

ev pecry T/J TroXe/ TreTro/^ra/, ev()a o 
avT(jji> 5/a WKtoq 


amoQavelv co^ A/TTOOV 
^/v" o &e 6avaro<; evn crfiecrOyvai. 

TCOV Xi^vcov airoXoyov- 



3a$vvw. evda, 



dent, and there were places of receipt for them 
all ; every one had his name as well as men ; 
and we did hear them speak. These did us 
no harm, but invited us to feast with them, 
yet we were so fearful, that we durst neither 
eat nor sleep as long as we were there. Their 
court of justice standeth in the midst of the 
city, where the governor sitteth all the night 
long calling every one by name, and he that 
answereth not is adjudged to die, as if he had 
forsaken his ranks. Their death is to be 
quenched. We also standing amongst them A very pro- 

per death. 

saw what was done, and heard what answers 
the lights made for themselves, and the reasons 
they alleged for tarrying so long : there we 
also knew our own light, and spake unto it, 

8o AAHGOY2 12TOPIA2. A. 29. 

KOA TtpocreiTrwv avrov irepi 

OIKOV e^vudojvo^v OTTOX; %oiev' o 




i ov 

ov jap eta TO 

Xeveiv [Aevroi avrajv eXejero Kopojvo$ o 
KoTTV<f)i(t)vo$. KCM eyco e/JtV^aB^v Ap 


e aTTo ravTys y/tepa 

ye roiv ev ro5 aepi 


and questioned it of our affairs at home, and 
how all did there, which related everything 
unto us. That night we made our abode there, 
and on the next morrow returned to our ship, 
and sailing near unto the clouds had a sight 

which could 

of the city Nephelococcygia, which we beheld %* as al1 done 

amongst them. 

with great wonder, but entered not into it, for 
the wind was against us. The king thereof 
was Coronus, the son of Cottyphion : and I 
could not choose but think upon the poet 
Aristophanes, how wise a man he was, and / his 

comedy called 

how true a reporter, and how little cause there which ""he 

wrote against 

is to question his fidelity for what he hath Socrates - 

The third after, the ocean appeared plainly 
unto us, though we could see no land but 
what was in the air, and those countries also 



fiplav fAaXaKOJ$ ev8/8ovro roS 
KOA (TWifywoirro$ eiri ryv OaXaTTav 

so. e TOV 


K TOJV Traovrcov TTOIOV- 

vTes V7i%o{Ae6a' Kai jap 

ovcra KOA ev&radovv TO 

iroXXaKu; y Trog TO 

ev evfila TrXevcravTes 

a<pvco opaj/juev Oypla Kai KiqTV] TroXXa 
Kai aXXa, ev e ae 



seemed to be fiery and of a glittering colour. 
The fourth day about noon, the wind gently 
forbearing, settled us fair and leisurely into the 
sea ; and as soon as we found ourselves upon 
water, we were surprised with incredible glad- 
ness, and our joy was unexpressible : we 
feasted and made merry with such provision 
as we had ; we cast ourselves into the sea, 
and swam up and down for our disport, for 
it was a calm. But oftentimes it falleth out 
that the change to the better is the beginning 
of greater evils : for when we had made only 
two days' sail in the water, as soon as the 
third day appeared, about sun-rising, upon a 
sudden we saw many monstrous fishes and 
whales : but one above the rest, containing in A fish of 

an indifferent 

greatness fifteen hundred furlongs, which came she - 

G 2 

84 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 31. 

cov %i7Jtx)v KCLI TrevTaxoo-lcDv TO /Ae 
e Ke^yvos KCLI irpo TroXXov TCLpCLTTOV 

pco re 


uicnrep GKoXoTrag KCLI \evi<ovq (cnrep 
faurrfoovg. Tjfj^eiq {Aev ovv TO VCTTUTOV 

O 6 

e/AVO(AV TO 6 7j TTCLpyjV KOA 

crav ^a^ avTy vyi KOLTeiriev. ov 

crvvapa^ai TO!<; o^ovviv, oiXXa 
TCOV dpaia)/AaTO)v TJ vavq eg TO ecra) 

iT-,\^\/^ ^ \ \ 

si. hiTre/ 6e evbov yjuuev, TO pev 

KCLI OV$V (*)pUJ{Aei>, V(TTpQV 6 




gaping upon us and troubled the sea round 
about him, so that he was compassed on every 
side with froth and foam, showing his teeth 
afar off, which were longer than any beech 
trees are with us, all as sharp as needles, and 
as white as ivory: then we took, as we thought, 
our last leaves one of another, and embracing 
together, expected our ending day. The 
monster was presently with us, and swallowed 
us up ship and all ; but by chance he caught 
us not between his chops, for the ship slipped 
through the void passages down into his 
entrails. When we were thus got within him 
we continued a good while in darkness, and 
could see nothing till he began to gape, and then 
we perceived it to be a monstrous whale of a 

86 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 32. 

TtdvTy/ 7rXa,Tv KCLI in^Xov, IKCLVOV 

7roXe/ evoiKelv. eKeivro Se ev 

l i%0ve$ KCLI aXXa TroXXa, Gyp/a 

(TVyKKO/A{AVa KCLI 7rAo/W JoT/O- /Ctt/ OJ^KVfXLl 

KOA av6panra)v ocrTea KCLI 

/ Xcc/)o/ ycrav, ep^oi 




crratiioi ^ICLKOVIOI KCLI 
8e /Se7v KCLI opvecL ra 



. Tore /,ev ofv 67r/ TroXt; 

VCLVV vir<mi]piafti> 9 avroi 



huge breadth and height, big enough to contain 
a city that would hold ten thousand men : and 
within we found small fishes and many other 
creatures chopped in pieces, and the masts 
of ships and anchors and bones of men and 
luggage. In the midst of him was earth and 
hills, which were raised, as I conjectured, by 
the settling of the mud which came down his 
throat, for woods grew upon them and trees 
of all sorts and all manner of herbs, and it A country 

within the 

looked as if it had been husbanded. The 
compass of the land was two hundred and 
forty furlongs : there were also to be seen 
all kind of sea fowl, as gulls, halcyons, and 
others that had made their nests upon the 
trees. Then we fell to weeping abundantly, 
but at the last I roused up my company, and 

88 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIAZ. A. 32. 


vov K TO>I> 

K&I TravTofiaTra Kpea TWV 


, el TTOTC ava- 


%ai,voi TO KVJTO<;, ewpcofiev aXXore fiev 
aXXore 8e o^oy, aXXore e povov TO 
ovpdwv, 7ro\\OjKiq e KCLI vydovq' KCLI yap 


7% OaJwrryg. ejrei e v 
eyevo/AeOa, Xaffcov 

TO, TZCLVTCL /3ovXo[Aevo$. OVTTOI) Se 
TtevTe fiieXdaiv trrao/of^ elpov lepov 




propped up our ship, and struck fire. Then 
we made ready supper of such as we had, 
for abundance of all sort of fish lay ready 
by us, and we had yet water enough left which 
we brought out of the Morning Star. The 
next morrow we rose to watch when the whale 
should gape : and then looking out, we could 
sometimes see mountains, sometimes only the 
skies, and many times islands, for we found 
that the fish carried himself with great swift- 
ness to every part of the sea. When we grew 
weary of this, I took seven of my company, 
and went into the wood to see what I could 
find there, and we had not gone above five 
furlongs but we light upon a temple erected 
to Neptune, as by the title appeared, and not 
far off we espied many sepulchres and pillars 

90 AAH9OY2 I2TOPIAZ. A. 33. 



, eTi &e Kai 

TroppcoOev Kai TWO, 

33. Trov ovv 

i veavlcTKCp paXa, 


ovv a>yi*aj KCLI (frofiyBevreg 

Se T&VTOV TMV co TO eiKo Trad- 

ovreq avavboi Ttaea'VYjKeo-av " ovco 8e o 

ec|wy, Tive<; a pa v/Ae7$ eo-re, co 
y wrepov, efaj, roiv evaXicDV 

y a 


jap y/Ae?*; av6p(*)7roi ovreq Kai ev y 
vw OaXarTioi yeyova/Aev KOA 


placed upon them, with a fountain of clear 
water close unto it : we also heard the barking 
of a dog, and saw smoke rise afar off, so that 
we judged there was some dwelling thereabout. 
Wherefore making the more haste, we lighted 
upon an old man and a youth, who were very 
busy in making a garden and in conveying 
water by a channel from the fountain into it : 
whereupon we were surprised both with joy and 
fear : and they also were brought into the 
same taking, and for a long time remained 
mute. But after some pause, the old man 
said, What are ye, you strangers ? any of the 
sea spirits ? or miserable men like unto us ? for 
we that are men by nature, born and bred 
in the earth, are now sea-dwellers, and swim 

92 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 33. 

ra> Treieovri rovra) 

ovtf a 7rdo-%ofAv aKpij3a>$ effioreg* reOvd- 
vai pev jap eiKafy/Aev, {fiv &e 7ri<rTvo{Av. 
og ravra Ka/yco enrov ' Ka/ Tj 
vev]Xv$$, a) Ttajrep, UVTCO 

TtpoyXOopev 8e 
ra ev TTJ vXy ax; 
yap rig xai Xacriog etyaivero. 

cog eoiKev, y/Aag v/yaye ae re 
Kai eivoftevovg ori [Ay (AOVOI ev 
Kadeipy/^eBa rojj dypicp " aXXa fypacrov 

ye yjiilv ryv cravrov rv%yv, ocrrig re 

o7T(t)g ftevpo eleyXOeg. o Se ov Ttporepov 
epelv ov$e Trevo'eo'Bai Trap yfAcov Ttpiv 
raw irapovratv {Aerafiovvai, Kai Xa/3a)v 
yyev em ryv oiK/av eTFeirohjTO 8e 


up and down within the Continent of this 
whale, and know not certainly what to think 
of ourselves : we are like to men that be dead, 
and yet believe ourselves to be alive. Where- 
unto I answered, For our parts, father, we are 
men also, newly come hither, and swallowed 
up ship and all but yesterday : and now come 
purposely within this wood which is so large 
and thick : some good angel, I think, did 
guide us hither to have the sight of you, 
and to make us know that we are not the 
only men confined within this monster : tell 
us therefore your fortunes, we beseech you, 
what you are, and how you came into this 

ITT" 111 1 I* W(IS a 

place. But he answered, You shall not hear custom * 

ancient times 
.. r . .to entertain all 

a word irom me, nor ask any more questions strangers -with 

a feast before 

until you have taken part of such viands as 

94 AAH9OY2 IZTOPIAZ. A. 34. 


\>/A ^ ' /)" '' s\v ^ 

re /ca/ aucpQQpva* K&I i%vv$, ex/ Oe KCLI 


7rvv()avTO a eireTrovOeifAev' 

TOV re %ei/jtj)vaj Kai 
ev ry vy(TCp Kai TOV ev ro3 aepi 

TOV TToXeaov, Kai TO, 


34. e v7T>avAao-a Kai avTO ev 

ra /cafi' eavrov 8/e^e/ Xeycov, To 

e/^/, o> 

8e /car' efiTtopiav airo rfy Trarpwog 

ov o^are, /^a/ aXXcov TroXXcov o/Ve- 
eTrXeov e/ 'iraX/W TTO//C/XOV 

67T/ veco^ ^eyaXoy^, ^v ern 


we are able to afford you. So he took us 
and brought us into his house, which was 
sufficient to serve his turn : his pallets were 
prepared, and all things else made ready. 
Then he set before us herbs and nuts and 
fish, and filled out of his own wine unto us : 
and when we were sufficiently satisfied, he 
then demanded of us what fortunes we had 
endured, and I related all things to him in 
order that had betide unto us, the tempest, 
the passages in the island, our navigation in 
the air, our war, and all the rest, even till 
our diving into the whale. Whereat he 
wondered exceedingly, and began to deliver 
also what had befallen to him, and said, By 
lineage, O ye strangers, I am of the isle An island 

J in the eastern 

Cyprus, and travelling from mine own country MBkrr**e* 

/r J Sea, betwixt 

as a merchant, with this my son you see here, c*. 

96 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 34. 



eq TOV w/ceavov 



Se TO eral 



6 (7lTOV[AVOl 

axpoftpva,. TroXXoy 8e, co^ o^are, oy IXoy, 
a/&7reXov$ e%ei TroXXa^, a^)' 


7/yvera/ " 

i \f/v%pcrrarov 

evvv/v e a?ro 
Trvp acfrGovov Kalofiev Kai opvea 


and many other friends with me, made a 
voyage for Italy in a great ship full fraught 
with merchandise, which perhaps you have 
seen broken in pieces in the mouth of the 
whale. We sailed with fair weather till we 
were as far as Sicily, but there we were over- 
taken with such a boisterous storm that the 
third day we were driven into the ocean, where 
it was our fortune to meet with this whale 
which swallowed us all up, and only we two 
escaped with our lives ; all the rest perished, 
whom we have here buried and built a temple 
to Neptune. Ever since we have continued 
this course of life, planting herbs and feeding 
upon fish and nuts : here is wood enough, you 
see, and plenty of vines which yield most deli- 
cate wine : we have also a well of excellent cool 
water, which it may be you have seen : we 


98 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIAZ. A. 35. 

rd eivTreTOAeva Kai 

7Tl TO, 

rov Bypiov, evQa Kai Xovo/ieOa, OTrorav 

KOM XiAv ov 

ecrriv aXfivpa crra&/cov el/coai TO 

e%ovcra 7ravTO$a,7rov<;, ev 97 KOM 


7rra KCLI 


TO, PJV ahXoij icrctx; fyepeiv e8f- 
, oi e yeiroveg 


ovreq KOA aypioi. H jap, etyyv eyco, Kai 
eq elcriv ev TO) xyrei ; HoXXol (iev, 

, KOA a^evoi Kai rag 
ra fiev jap e&Trepia Kai ovpa7a 


make our beds of the leaves of trees, and burn 
as much wood as we will : we chase after the 
birds that fly about us, and go out upon the 
gills of the monster to catch after live fishes : 
here we bathe ourselves when we are disposed, 
for we have a lake of salt water not far off, 
about some twenty furlongs in compass, full of 
sundry sorts of fish, in which we swim and 
sail upon it in a little boat of mine own 
making. This is the seven-and-twentieth year 
of our drowning, and with all this we might be 
well enough contented if our neighbours and 
borderers about us were not perverse and 
troublesome, altogether insociable and of stern 
condition. Is it so, indeed, said I, that there 
should be any within the whale but your- 
selves ? Many, said he, and such as are un- 
reconcilable towards strangers, and of mon- 

II 2 

ioo AAH9OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 35. 

OIKOVGIV, eOvoq j^eXva)7rov KCLI 


TO, 6 

TOV e/ov roov 

TCOV aXXcov* xa 

\ / / \ 

KCLl &VVVOK(f>(lXoi (TVpjfJjOj^iaV T Kdl 
\ t \ / \ s\\ 

eavrovg TreTroiyfAevoi ' ryv Se 
vefiovrai Ha/yovpi$ai KUI 

KOA ftpofAiKOJTUTOV ' ra 
irpoq aura) T 


irpoq aura) TW GTOAaTi ra 






strous and deformed proportions. The western 
countries and the tail-part of the wood are 
inhabited by the Tarychanians that look like 
eels, with faces like a lobster : these are war- 
like, fierce, and feed upon raw flesh : they 
that dwell towards the right side are called 
Tritonomendetans, which have their upper 
parts like unto men, their lower parts like cats, 
and are less offensive than the rest. On the 
left side inhabit the Carcinochirians and the 
Thinnocephalians, which are in league one with 
another : the middle region is possessed by the 
Paguridians, and the Psettopodians, a warlike 
nation and swift of foot : eastwards towards 
the mouth is for the most part desert, as over- 
washed by the sea : yet am I fain to take that 
for my dwelling, paying yearly to the Psetto- 
podians in way of tribute five hundred oysters. 

102 AAH60Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 36. 

36. ' 


Hocroi 5e, etyyv eyco, Travreg ovro 
HXelov^ ec/)^, TCOV ^/X/W. f/ O?rXa 

/ j\ 5rs, r^'5s r ir j, -\ v 

TIVO, ecrriv avrou; ; U^dev, ecp^, TTA^V 
TCOV i%6va)v. QVKQVV, efyyv 

are o^cr/v avo?rXo/^ avrov$ ye 
(Avov$ " e/ 766/2 KparycrofAev avraJv, 


em vavv 

a/r/a Se roS TroXepov e^eXXev e&ecrOai TOV 

OVK MTd$00V, ^9; T^ 7T 

>o'yj$. Kai Soy o/ />cev eire/jjirov 


Of so many nations doth this country consist. 
We must therefore devise among ourselves 
either how to be able to fight with them, or 
how to live among them. What number may 
they all amount unto ? said I. More than a 
thousand, said he. And what armour have 
they? None at all, said he, but the bones 
of fishes. Then were it our best course, said I, 
to encounter them, being provided as we are, 
and they without weapons, for if we prove too 
hard for them we shall afterward live out of 
fear. This we concluded upon, and went to 
our ship to furnish ourselves with arms. The 
occasion of war we gave by non-payment of 
tribute, which then was due, for they sent their 
messengers to demand it, to whom he gave a 
harsh and scornful answer, and sent them 

104 AAHGOY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 37. 

Trpcoroi ouv ol ^TTOTroSe^ teat ol Hayovpftai 

ro5 ^Kivdapco TOVTO jap 
/^era TroXXoS 6opv/3ov eTry 
37. ypjclq Se rqv e 

dvfipcov TrevTe Kai *LKQ<TIV 

Kai OVTO)$ 

jap KaroTTKrOev CKOTTTOV avrovg, 
l 8e Kai avroi TrevTe Kai eiKOGi rov 

ovreq Kai jap o ^KivBapo*; Kai 
o TTOI<; avrov (rvvecrTpaTevovTO 

KOA (jv^/jjl^auTeq OvfAto Kai 
. reXog &e rpoiryv 


packing with their arrant. But the Psetto 
podians and Paguridians, taking it ill at the 
hands of Scintharus, for so was the man named, 
came against us with great tumult : and we, 
suspecting what they would do, stood upon our 
guard to wait for them, and laid five-and- 
twenty of our men in ambush, commanding 
them as soon as the enemy was passed by to 
set upon them, who did so, and arose out of 
their ambush, and fell upon the rear. We also 
being fi ve-and-twenty in number (for Scintharus who supplied 

the room of the 
11- 1111 \i t' itjo that were 

and his son were marshalled among us) ad- //. 
vanced to meet with them, and encountered 
them with great courage and strength : but in 
the end we put them to flight and pursued 
them to their very dens. Of the enemies were 

io6 AAH0OYZ I2TOPIAS. A. 38. 



KO,l eKUTOV, tf/ACOV 6 6/ KCM 


38. KIV7V JjV OVV 

ry vovepala 

] ol aXXoi ai(i6o/Avoi irapycrav, TO 
Kepaq e%ovTe<; ol 

TO 8e evcovviov ol 

, TO fiecrov 6 ol 
ol jap TpiTtovofjjev^yTeq TTJV 


7rpoa7ravT7ja'avTe<; avTolq Trapa TO Tloorei- 


slain an hundred threescore and ten, and but 
one of us besides Trigles, our pilot, who was 
thrust through the back with a fish's rib. All 
that day following and the night after we 
lodged in our trenches, and set on end a dry 
backbone of a dolphin instead of a trophy. 

The next morrow the rest of the country 
people, perceiving what had happened, came to 
assault us. The Tarychanians were ranged in 
the right wing, with Pelamus their captain : the 
Thinnocephalians were placed in the left wing : 
the Carcinochirians made up the main battle : 
for the Tritonomendetans stirred not, neither 
would they join with either part. About the 
temple of Neptune we met with them, and 
joined fight with a great cry, which was 

io8 AAH60Y2 IZTOPIA2. A. 39. 

Se TO KVTO$ axnrep ra 

aviovq are 

i KaTa$ia)%ai>T$ e$ TTJV vXyv TO XOITTOV 

39. KOA {AT 0V TTOXv KTjpVKOj^ a7TOC7- 


S/eXeyovro. ypJiv Se OVK 
cr7rV$O"()ai, dXXa TTJ 

CTT avTOv$ 


OVTOI Se o5^ e/Sov ra yiyvofteva, 

6dXa,TTav. ypjelq Se TVJV 




answered with an echo out of the whale as if 
it had been out of a cave : but we soon put 
them to flight, being naked people, and chased 
them into the wood, making ourselves masters 
of the country. Soon after they sent ambas- 
sadors to us to crave the bodies of the dead 
and to treat upon conditions of peace ; but we 
had no purpose to hold friendship with them, 
but set upon them the next day and put them 
all to the sword except the Tritonomendetans, 
who, seeing how it fared with the rest of their 
fellows, fled away through the gills of the fish, 
and cast themselves into the sea. Then we 
travelled all the country over, which now was 
desert, and dwelt there afterwards without fear 
of enemies, spending the time in exercise of the 



TOV K rctju Sevcov, Ara/ 


KCLI \e\vp*evoi$. eviavrov 

f*ev ovv Kai PJTJVOU; o/crco TOVTOV 


40. TO) 8' evaTO) /AVJVI TtefATTT'fl 


jap S'jy TOVTO KaTa Tyv ojpav 




\ \ *\ / ^ / \ 

T TroAA'jy Kai 6opv/3o$ y/toveTO Kai 
(jjcnrep KeXev&fAaTa Kai elpeo-lai' Tapa%- 
ovv dveipTrvcrauev eif avTO TO 


body and in hunting, in planting vineyards and 
gathering fruit of the trees, like such men as 
live delicately and have the world at will, in a 
spacious and unavoidable prison. This kind 
of life led we for a year and eight months, but 
when the fifth day of the ninth month was 
come, about the time of the second opening of 
his mouth (for so the whale did once every A 


hour, whereby we conjectured how the hours 
went away), I say about the second opening, 
upon a sudden we heard a great cry and a 
mighty noise like the calls of mariners and the 
stirring of oars, which troubled us not a little. 
Wherefore we crept up to the very mouth of 
the fish, and standing within his teeth, saw 
the strangest sight that ever eye beheld men 

U2 AAHBOY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 40. 

crro/Ao, TOV Ovjplov Kdi cnavTe<; 

eyco ewov Oea/Aarcov 7Tapa$Q%OTaTOV 9 av- 


v. o/a [jjev ovv 

dcov, Xe^co Se 

ycrav eTTi^Keiq p^ev, ov Trdvv &e 


' eiri e UVTCOV ejrXeov TCOV dv- 

IKO(71 KCLl * 




of monstrous greatness, half a furlong in 
stature, sailing upon mighty great islands as if 
they were upon shipboard. I know you will 
think this smells like a lie, but yet you shall 
have it. The islands were of a good length 
indeed, but not very high, containing about an 
hundred furlongs in compass ; every one of 
these carried of those kind of men eight-and- 
twenty, of which some sat on either side of the 
island and rowed in their course with great 
cypress trees, branches, leaves and all, instead 
of oars. On the stern or hinder part, as I take 
it, stood the governor, upon a high hill, with a 
brazen rudder of a furlong in length in his 
hand : on the fore-part stood forty such fellows 
as those, armed for the fight, resembling men 

ii 4 AAH60Y2 I2TOPIA2. A. 41. 


7rpcx)pa$ ocrov TerrapaKOVTa, 

K0fjj7j<; ' avTy e Trvp yv KOA 

, (J}(7T 

oey ev eKao-Ty exoXTrov re 
KOA efyepe tyv vyvov y eOeXoi o 

eipecrlav o%ea}$ e/tivovvro 

ra {AUK pa, TOV 

41. TO (AV OVV TTpCOTOV $VO V] T pl<; 

eTroXe/AOvv teal 

oi/v di>Ti7rpa)poi 


in all points but in their hair, which was all 
fire and burnt clearly, so that they needed no 
helmets. Instead of sails the wood growing 
in the island did serve their turns, for the wind 
blowing against it drave forward the island 
like a ship, and carried it which way the 
governor would have it, for they had pilots to 
direct them, and were as nimble to be stirred 
with oars as any long-boat. At the first we had 
the sight but of two or three of them : after- 
wards appeared no less than six hundred, 
which, dividing themselves in two parts, pre- 
pared for encounter, in which many of them A stra,, ge 


by meeting with their barks together were 
broken in pieces, many were turned over and 
drowned : they that closed, fought lustily and 
would not easily be parted, for the soldiers in 

I 2 

n6 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. A, 42. 

, TroXXa/ e 
KavretivovTO, at e 

Kaprepcos fiiyyaivll^ovTO KOA ov pa- 

ajreXvovTO " oJ 


9 01 6 7repl7rXKO/AVOl T7J 

KCLI eTiTpwcrKOv oo"Tpeloi<; re 
o'i KCLI O-TTOJJOK; 7rXe()pialot$. 
42. yyefro &e rcov ^ey Aio\OKVTavpo$, 

, co^ e'&o/ce/, Xe/a^ epexa' 



the front showed a great deal of valour, enter- 
ing one upon another, and killed all they could, 
for none were taken prisoners. Instead of iron 
grapples they had mighty great polypodes fast A fi& 
tied, which they cast at the other, and if they 
once laid hold on the wood they made the isle 
sure enough for stirring. They darted and 
wounded one another with oysters that would 
fill a wain, and sponges as big as an acre. The 
leader on the one side was ^Eolocentaurus, and 
of the other Thalassopotes. The quarrel, as it 
seems, grew about taking a booty : for they 
said that Thalassopotes drave away many 
flocks of dolphins that belonged to ^Eolocen- 
taurus, as we heard by their clamours one to 
another, and calling upon the names of their 



TCOV /Sad/Xecov e?r//3oco/>G6va)v. re- 
Se viKUxriv ol TOV AioXoKevravpov Kai 


Kai e/carov KCLI 

, at 

irpv/Avav Kpovo-d/Aevai etyevyov. ol 
TIVO<; 8/o)^avT6^, eTre/Soy ecnrepa, 

TpaTTOfievoi irpo<; ra vavdyia 

eTrexpaTycrav KCLI ra 
dvetXovro * 

OVK eXarrov TCOV 


7Tl T7 K()O,Xy TOV 


kings : but ^Eolocentaurus had the better of 
the day and sunk one hundred and fifty of the 
enemy's islands, and three they took with the 
men and all. The rest withdrew themselves 
and fled, whom the other pursued, but not 
far, because it grew towards evening, but re- 
turned to those that were wrecked and broken, 
which they also recovered for the most part, 
and took their own away with them : for on 
their part there were no less than fourscore 
islands drowned. Then they erected a trophy 
for a monument of this island fight, and 
fastened one of the enemy's islands with a 
stake upon the head of the whale. That night 
they lodged close by the beast, casting their 
cables about him, and anchored near unto him: 
their anchors are huge and great, made of 

120 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. A. 42. 

v ovv ryv VVKTCL TTepl TO Oyptov ijvXi- 

avrov TO, ajrojeia KOA 

7T O/KV&V TrXvO-lOV OJljl(TajVQl * KO>1 



eif avTOv djreTrXeov ^QAevQi K&I 

TO/UTO, Aev TO, 


glass, but of a wonderful strength. The 
morrow after, when they had sacrificed upon 
the top of the whale, and there buried their 
dead, they sailed away, with great triumph and 
songs of victory. And this was the manner of 
the islands' fight. 



i. To S' a?ro TOVTOV 
eyco royv ev TO> KTJTCI fiiaiTav a^Qo^evoq re 
TTJ fiovy, IAVJX&VYJV riva 

an ^e\Gelv yevono * Kai TO 

e&oev <YHMV fiiopv^acri /car a 
ov roT^ov a?ro^ava/, Ara/ dp^a 

ovfiev vvo^ev^ TOV 


oSrco a av TO 




UPON this we began to be weary of our 
abode in the whale, and our tarriance there did 
much trouble us. We therefore set all our 
wits a-work to find out some means or other to 
clear us from our captivity. First, we thought 
it would do well to dig a hole through his 
right side and make our escape that way forth, 
which we began to labour at lustily ; but after 
we had pierced him five furlongs deep and 
found it was to no purpose, we gave it over. 
Then we devised to set the wood on fire, for 

i2 4 AAH90Y2 IZTOPIAS. B. i. 

a7ro6ave7v * ei Se TOVTO yevono, pcfi/a 

. dp^d- 

t F \e\\v / 



evaTy crvvie/Aev avTOv VOGOVVTO*;. dpyore- 
pov yovv dve%a<7t<: 9 xai el Trore 
(Twelve. Senary Se KOA 

KUI $vcrco$e$ 


el py rig %avovTO$ avrov 

ev VKu> 



TO CTTOfAO, ^lepelvavTet; Tyv VCLVV 




that would certainly kill him without all ques- 
tion, and being once dead, our issue would be 
easy enough. This we also put in practice, 
and began our project at the tail end, which 
burnt seven days and as many nights before he They set t 

whale on fire. 

had any feeling of our fireworks : upon the 
eighth and ninth days we perceived he began 
to grow sickly : for he gaped more dully than 
he was wont to do, and sooner closed his 
mouth again : the tenth and eleventh he was 
thoroughly mortified and began to stink : upon 
the twelfth day we bethought ourselves, though 
almost too late, that unless we underpropped 
his chops when he gaped next to keep them 
from closing, we should be in danger of per- 
petual imprisonment within his dead carcase 
and there miserably perish. We therefore 

i 2 6 AAH90Y2 IZTOF1A2. B. 2. 

aXXo//,evo/ Kai TO, aXXa eTrny 
&' e/AeXXev o %Kl 



TO 7rXo7ov /ca/ 

TCOV aiwAoTCDV iayayovTes KCLI K 


TO Tpojraiov y/Aepas re 

voyve/x/za 'ya^ ^y r^ re- 

/ca/ TroorcoAreXXo^ev /ca/ ra 

r/vag eTrXeo/Aev cvKpaTO) aepi 
, ejreiTa, fiopeov crfyo^pov 


pitched long beams of timber upright within 
his mouth to keep it from shutting, and then 
made our ship in a readiness, and provided 
ourselves with store of fresh water, and all 
other things necessary for our use, Scintharus 
taking upon him to be our pilot, and the next 
morrow the whale died. Then we hauled our 
ship through the void passages, and fastening 
cables about his teeth, by little and little settled 
it into the sea, and mounting the back of the 
whale, sacrificed to Neptune, and for three 
days together took up our lodging hard by the 
trophy, for we were becalmed. The fourth day 
we put to sea, and met with many dead corpses 
that perished in the late sea-fight, which our 
ship hit against, whose bodies we took measure 
of with great admiration, and sailed for a few 

128 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 2. 

TO TreXayo^ OVK 7ri7roXy$ [AQVOV, 

jq, coare KUI a7ro/3avTa$ 


fyepeiv ov ^vva/^evot ro/ov&e r/ 

- 6 

oyv ^KivOapoq ovca^avre^ jap ev 
TCO v$an crjryXaiov [AeyicrTOv ev TOVTCO 
(Aiva(AV vjfjjepaq rpiaKOVTa, jrvp dva- 


eireXiire ra 

KOI ryv va/uv 

rqv o&ovyv edvpo 
7rXeovT$ Xe/co^ KOA 



days in very temperate weather. But after that 
the north wind blew so bitterly that a great 
frost ensued, wherewith the whole sea was all 
frozen up, not only superficially upon the upper 
part, but in depth also the depth of four 
hundred fathoms, so that we were fain to for- 
sake our ship and run upon the ice. The 
wind sitting long in this corner, and we not 
able to endure it, put this device in practice, 
which was the invention of Scintharus : with 
mattocks and other instruments we made a 
mighty cave in the water, wherein we sheltered 
ourselves forty days together : in it we kindled 
fire, and fed upon fish, of which we found great 
plenty in our digging. At the last, our pro- 
vision falling short, we returned to our frozen 
ship, which we set upright, and spreading her 

130 AAH60Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 3. 


oiXea re yft v KOA o 


-, ' ?/ 


vycrcp iKci teat 

, dfi yc, vfiwp Xa/3ovT$ e 


ovq KaTa,TO%vcravTe$ aTTeTrXevo-afAev. ol 8e 

ravpoi OVTOI ra xepara OVK e?r/ 


o Mco[AO$ yt-tov. />cer' ov TtoXv Se 
evefiaivofiev, ov% u 
' KCLI wjvog ev avrco 
i>TO Xevxy TcXypys a^TreXcov. yv Se y 

tvpoq /AeyicTTO$, Travv 


sails, went forward as well as if we had been 
upon water, leisurely and gently sliding upon 
the ice ; but on the fifth day the weather grew 
warm, and the frost brake, and all was turned 
to water again. We had not sailed three 
hundred furlongs forwards but we came to a 
little island that was desert, where we only 
took in fresh water (which now began to fail 
us), and with our shot killed two wild bulls, 
and so departed. These bulls have their horns 
growing not upon their heads but under their 
eyes, as Momus thought it better. Then we 

Jupiter for 

entered into a sea, not of water but of milk, in >f ot s , ef ^ ' A * 

bulls horns in 
1-1 i 1 -i i r 11 r this manner. 

which appeared a white island full of vines. ARIST. depart. 

ani. 1. 3. He 

This island was only a great cheese well feasting aL 

of carping 

pressed (as we afterwards found when we fed <l JSe. 

H ESI on, in 

that he was the 
son of I he A'i if/it, 
but begotten 
without a 

K 2 

I 3 2 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 4. 

KOji eiKOcri arafttcov TO irept/Aerpov " a/ 

8e a/yOTreXo/ /Sorpvwv TrXypeig, ov [Aevroi 
oivov, aXXa yaXa e% avrcov a7ro6x!/3ovT<; 

$ efiyXov TO eVrya/^^a. oVov 8 

KOtl (TITIOV V7ri 9 7TOTOV &6 TO 

TO 6/C TCOV /3oTpV(jt)V. f3o,<Tl\VlV $ TOJV 

TVJV evrevOev a 
ravrv/v Trapa TOV IIo(7e/8ctivo^ Xa/Soucra 



ev rjj 

ry eVry efa)^/>o^<7a^ev, avpa^ 


upon it), about some five-and-twenty furlongs 
in bigness : the vines were full of clusters of 
grapes, out of which we could crush no wine, 
but only milk : in the midst of the island there 
was a temple built dedicated to Galatea, one A sea 

nymph, daugh- 

of the daughters of Nereus, as by the inscrip- a 

called because 

tion appeared. As long as we remained there j,/^f 


the soil yielded us food and victuals, and our 
drink was the milk that came out of the 
grapes: in these, as they said, reigfneth Tyro, of her 

J J Neptune begot 

the daughter of Salmoneus, who, after her #*//, M* 

father of Nestor. 

departure, received this guerdon at the hands 

of ES, 

a territory of 

Of NeptUne. Peloponnesus, 

and for imitat- 
ing the thunder 

In this island we rested ourselves five ^,?^> 

chariot over a 
. . bridge of brass, 

days, and on the sixth put to sea again, * j/ */* 

' ' a thitnderboL 

11 i 11 by Jupiter. 

a gentle gale attending us, and the seas 
all still and quiet. The eighth day, as we 

i 3 4 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 4. 

ovxeTt 8/a TOV 

ofa Se 

ev aX/Avpcp Kai KvauoJ v$art, 
d#Qpamov$ jcoXkovq CTTI TOV 

aTtavra y/jv 



TCOV TTOCOV [Aovcov * ravra jap 





01 Se KCLI TTpoo-yeo-av KOA ( Y}<J'K(L- 


( Y}<J 
i? eXeyov re 

6/V ^^XXct) ryv avrcov 

ovv TIVO<; crvvu^onropovv 
TrapaOeovreg, e/ra 


sailed onward, not in milk any longer, but in 
salt and azure water, we saw many men run- 
ning upon the sea, like unto us every way 
forth, both in shape and stature, but only for 
their feet, which were of cork, whereupon, I 
suppose, they had the name of Phellopodes. 
We marvelled much when we saw they did not 
sink, but keep above water, and travel upon it 
so boldly. These came unto us, and saluted 
us in the Grecian language, and said they were 
bound towards Phello, their own country, and 
for a while ran along by us, but at last turned 
their own way and left us, Avishing us a happy 
and prosperous voyage. Within a while after 
many islands appeared, and near unto them, 
upon our left hand, stood Phello, the place 

i 3 6 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 5. 

ofiov eSo 

oXiyov 8e TroXXa/ 

K&I dTpoyyvXov 
wri * TTOCpwOev Se /ca/ 

KOA Trvp TtoXv ofK avTCOV 

5. Kara Se r^v Trpcopav f&la 
Ara/ TaTre/voy, (rra$lov$ eire^ovaoj OVK 

T TjfACV KCLl 6 (LV fJt,a,O"T7] Tiq CWpOt 7Tj3l- 

, oiav 

o crv 

olov jap a/no 



whereunto they were travelling, which was a 
city seated upon a mighty great and round 
cork. Further off, and more towards the right 
hand, we saw five other islands, large and 
mountainous, in which much fire was burning ; 
but directly before us was a spacious flat island, 
distant from us not above five hundred fur- 
longs : and approaching somewhat near unto it, 
a wonderful fragrant air breathed upon us, 
of a most sweet and delicate smell, such as 
Herodotus, the story-writer, saith ariseth out 
of Arabia the happy, consisting of a mixture 
of roses, daffodils, gillyflowers, lilies, violets, 
myrtles, bays, and blossoms of vines : such a 
dainty odoriferous savour was conveyed unto 

1 38 AAH90Y2 IZTOPIA2. B. 5. 


Se ry 

K iaKtov TTQVUW 

TrXycriov ry$ vycrov 
. evOa oy 



rovg KOA /AeyaXovg 7TOTa{Aov$ re 

$ TTJV QaXarrav, eri 
KCLI vXaq Kai opvea, 
<7//ca, ra (iev eiri TOJV y'iovwv a 

T KOV(f)0$ KOjt 

' avpai 

airveovcrai vjpefta tyv vXyv 



Being delighted with this smell, and hoping 
for better fortunes after our long labours, 
we got within a little of the isle, in which we 
found many havens on every side, not sub- 
ject to overflowing, and yet of great capacity, 
and rivers of clear water emptying themselves 
easily into the sea, with meadows and herbs 
and musical birds, some singing upon the 
shore, and many upon the branches of trees, a 
still and gentle air compassing the whole 
country. When pleasant blasts gently stirred 
the woods the motion of the branches made a 
continual delightsome melody, like the sound 
of wind instruments in a solitary place : a kind 
of clamour also was heard mixed with it, yet 

140 AAH9OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 6. 

KCLI (Tvve%7] 
ro7g eif eoflat; avXyfAacri TCOV 

cov avXcov. KCLI p*vjv KCLI ficy <TV/A- 
yKovero a6pov$, ov 

o/a jevoiT aw ev cr^Trocr/co, 

v avXovvTcov, TCOV Se 

7tpo<; avXov 



KCLI TreiTroXoi^ ol Se ft 



TOV a^w/ra, 7ra/s' cov S^ /cad' 


not tumultuous nor offensive, but like the noise 
of a banquet, when some do play on wind in- 
struments, some commend the music, and some 
with their hands applaud the pipe, or the harp. 
All which yielded us so great content that we 
boldly entered the haven, made fast our ship 
and landed, leaving in her only Scintharus and 
two more of our companions behind us. Pass- 
ing along through a sweet meadow we met 
with the guards that used to sail about the 
island, who took us and bound us with gar- 
lands of roses (which are the strictest bands 
they have), to be carried to their governor : 
from them we heard, as we were upon the way, 
that it was the island of those that are called 


AAII9OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 7, 8. 





7] fiev vyaro$ 


/ 807 dva%6evT<; co 



ypajcriv eire KCLI 





KOA eav- 

o 'Pa$a{Aav6v<;, vvv pen avrov 
rov eXXefiopov Trapafiodyvai 
roi Kcoco laTpcp, v&repov 8e 

^ere^eiv TOV O-V^TTOO-IOV. 
fievTepa 8e oyv Kplaiq epa)TiKV], 97- 
Kai MeveXaov Ttepl T*YJ<; ' 


blessed, and that Rhadamanthus was governor see The 

Tyrant, y. 

there, to whom we were brought and placed the 
fourth in order of them that were to be 

The first trial was about Ajax, the son of A contra- 

uersy concern- 
ing Ajax, who, 

Telamon, whether he were a meet man to be being overcome 

by the eloquence 
i 1 1 r 1 TT f Ulysses 

admitted into the society 01 the Heroes or ai-out Achilles' 1 

armour, fell 
. i i_ A j t i 1 mad and slew 

not : the objections against him were his mad- himself. 
ness and the killing of himself : and after long 
pleading to and fro, Rhadamanthus gave this 
sentence, that for the present he should be 
put to Hippocrates, the physician of Cos, to 
be purged with helleborus, and upon the 
recovery of his wits to have admittance. 

The second was a controversy of love, The- 
seus and Menelaus contending which had the 
better right to Helen; but Rhadamanthus gave 

144 AAH90Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 9, TO. 


Kelv. KOA o 'PaftdAavQv eS/Wcre Meve- 

Xaco evvelvai avryv are KOA 
TrovycravTi KOA Kiv^vvevcravn rov 
eveKCL " KOA jap av TCO Qoycre? KOA 
a\\0jq elv(Li <yvvaAKa<; lyv re 

9. rpiTv/ 8' e^iKOjvQv] irepi 

av8^o> re TCO <&iXi7T7rov KOA ' 
TO) Kap%i)$ovia), KM eofe 
'AAe^avSy^o^, KGM Opovoq avTCo ere 
irapa, IHvpov TOV Hepcryv TOV TrpOTepov. 


o *ev eTO rl 

iepov %a)plov TTij3aii/{AV * 


judgment on Menelaus' side, in respect of the 
manifold labours and perils he had incurred 
for that marriage' sake, whereas Theseus had 
wives enough beside to live withal as the 
Amazon, and the daughters of Minos. The 

Ariadne and 

third was a question of precedency between 
Alexander, the son of Philip, and Hannibal, 

1/^1 . i i * i 1 

the Carthaginian, in which Alexander was pre- 
ferred, and his throne placed next to the elder 

mans. See 

/ ,1 T> PLUTARCH in 

Cyrus the Persian. his life. 

The son of 

In the fourth place we appeared, and cambyse* who 

* translated the 

kingdom from 

he demanded of us what reason we had, tiuMedatotke 

Persians. See 
.... 111-1 1 ^e Surveyors. 

being" living 1 men, to take land in that sacred The younger 

Cyrus was the 

country, and we told him all our adventures Notkm and 

brother to Ar- 

in order as they befell us : then he com- 
manded us to stand aside, and considering 

146 AAH9OY2 I2TOPIA2. B, u. 

eir] TroXvv %povov ecr- 


. owyfyevov Se aXXoi re 

o fiiKaio o 

xai T aTro/a e?r- 

, TO 


KO.I dvv^iajiTTjQevTO^q rolq 

. era^e Se /ca/ 
e7rioy{Aia,$ ^ TrXeov fiyvoiv ejrra. 


elq TTJV TroXiv yyopeOa Kai eiq TO TUJV 

fiev ovv oy 

, TO 


upon it a great while, in the end proposed it 

to the benchers, which were many, and among 

them Aristides the Athenian, surnamed the PLUTARCH. 

Just : and when he was provided what sentence 

to deliver, he said that for "our busy curiosity 

and needless travels we should be accountable 

after our death ; but for the present we should 

have a time limited for our abode, during 

which we should feast with the Heroes and 

then depart, prefixing us seven months' liberty 

to conclude our tarriance, and no more. Then 

our garlands fell off from us of themselves, 

and we were set loose and led into the city to 

feast with the blessed. 

The city was all of gold, compassed ^f^f^^, 

blessed and the 

with a wall made of the precious stone ^ , 

and to their per- 
petual shame, 
out- lies Homer 
and all the 

L 2 

148 AAH9OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 12. 

* TrvXai 8e e/V/v eTrra,, 


TO/ e^ctjfyoq T^ TroXeax; Kai y evroq TOV 

* vaol Se 

XlOov o5 

l 6 T^^ TTOX/V y2e7 7TOTa[AO$ 

TOV KaXXl&TOV TO TrXaros 7rv)%eu)V 

Xovrpa e e<JT/v ev avro7<; 
OIKOI [AeyaXoi vaXivoi, TO) KivvaficofAcp ey- 

dvTi /Aevroi v$aro$ ev 
^poaoq 6ep(juy ecmv. 


^, 7rop<f)Vpdt$. 


smaragdus, which had seven gates, every 
one cut out of a whole piece of timber 
of cinnamon-tree : the pavement of the city 
and all the ground within the walls was 
ivory : the temples of all the gods are built of 
beryl, with large altars made all of one whole 
amethyst, upon which they offer their sacri- 
fices : about the city runneth a river of most 
excellent sweet ointment, in breadth an hun- 
dred cubits of the larger measure, and so deep 
that a man may swim in it with ease. For 
their baths they have great houses of glass, 
which they warm with cinnamon : and their 
bathing-tubs are filled with warm dew instead 
of water. Their only garments are cobwebs 
of purple colour; neither have they any bodies, 

1 50 AAH9OY2 IZTOPIAS. B. 12. 

OVK %ov(Tiv 9 aXX' dvafyeJc, Kai a&apKOi 
e/V/, (ioptyyv 8e Kal Ifieav fiovyv %ovcri 

Kai e/jjfyojivQvvi) xai MCTCD/AUTOI 
o'vveo'Toicri xai Kivovvrat xai 

VOVGl KCLl (fra)VV]l> d^lUdl, K&l oXcog 601K6 

TIC, v] ^ v %^ avrcijv 7repnzo\elv 

rov o~a){Aa,TO$ ofAOiOTyra 7repiKi/Aevv/ e 
<yovv p^v] atyano TI$, OVK av eXey 

elvai GOtfAa TO opCDfAevov " elcrt jap 

dKiai opOal, ov 
&e oiJSe/ aXX' e<)' av 

y Trapa/Aevei. ov ^v ovfie vvB, Trap* 
ylverai, ov$e y/Aepa Trdvv 

jap TO XvKavyeg rfiy jrpog 


7T%1 T7)V JV)V. KCLt fACVTOl KOA U)p(LV 


but are intactile and without flesh, a mere 
shape and presentation only : and being thus 
bodiless, they yet stand, and are moved, are 
intelligent, and can speak : and their naked 
soul seemeth to wander up and down in a 
corporal likeness : for if a man touch them not 
he cannot say otherwise, but that they have 
bodies, altogether like shadows standing up- 
right, and not, as they are, of a dark colour. 
No man waxeth any older there than he was 
before, but of what age he comes thither, so 
he continues. Neither is there any night with 
them, nor indeed clear day : but like the 
twilight towards morning before the sun be 
up, such a kind of light do they live in. They 
know but one season of the year which is the 

1 52 AAH90YZ UTOPIAS. B. 13. 

icracri rov TOV$ " del jap 
eap ecrn Kai el$ av[io$ Trap 

6 <f>VTOi$ y/Aepoig re Kai vKiepolt; 

Aev " at ^ev jap afArreXoi fia 

elcri KOA Kara [Ayva etcaffrov KapTrocfio- 

povai ' ra$ 8e poiaq KCLI rag 

aXXv/v OTrcopav eXeyov [Aev elvai 
Tpi(7Kai^Ka(f)Opoii " evoq jap [^yvoq TOV 
Trap avro7$ Mivcpov $1$ Kapitofyopel. dvTi 

TTVpOV 01 <TTa%V$ ap-TOV 6TOI/AOV 7T 

<f)vovcriv uxTTrep [AV 
Ttepi VYjv TroXiv v^aroq (Jbev TrevTe Kai 

Xai roaavraiy ftvpov Se Trevra/cocr/a/, 


spring, and feel no other wind but Zephyrus. 
The region flourisheth with all sorts of flowers, HOMER. 
and with all pleasing plants fit for shade : their 
vines bear fruit twelve times a year, every 
month once : their pomegranate-trees, their 
apple-trees, and their other fruit, they say, 
bear thirteen times in the year, for in the 
month called Minous they bear twice. In- 
stead of wheat their ears bear them loaves 
of bread ready baked, like unto mushrooms. 
About the city are three hundred three-score 
and five wells of water, and as many of 
honey, and five hundred of sweet ointment, 
for they are less than the other. They 
have seven rivers of milk and eight of 

154 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIA2. B. 14. 

porepat p*evroi avrai " KUI 
ejrra K&I o'tvov OKTOJ. 

14. TO oV o-v/ATTOo-iov 

ev TO! 'HXvcrla) KaXovfAevco 

6(7T/ Kd\\lO"TO KOA 

avrov vXy TravroiOt, 


avQewv v7ro(3e/3XvjTai. 
KCLI fiiafyepovcriv eKacrTa, 01 a 
<ye rov olvo%oelv " TOVTOV jap ov 
itepi &e TO VV/ATTOO'IOV 

vaXov, KOji K&TToq eari TCOV $ev$(t)v TOV- 

TTavrola Kai rag 

KOA TO, AeeO. 67re/av ovv 

TO arv/AKOO'iov, Tpvyycras ev y 


They keep their feast without the city 
in a field called Elysium, which is a most 
pleasant meadow, environed with woods of 
all sorts, so thick that they serve for a 
shade to all that are invited, who sit upon 
beds of flowers, and are waited upon, and 
have everything brought unto them by the 
winds, unless it be to have the wine filled : 
and that there is no need of: for about the 
banqueting place are mighty great trees grow- 
ing of clear and pure glass, and the fruit of 
those trees are drinking-cups and other kind 
of vessels of what fashion or greatness you 
will : and every man that comes to the feast 
gathers one or two of those cups, and sets 
them before him, which will be full of wine 

156 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIA2. B. 15. 


olvov TrXT iveTai. OVTO) 

avri &e TWV (rrecavcov al 

tioveg Kai ra aXXa {AovcriKoi opvea K rcov 
lov Xei/ACDVO)v Tolq crTO/Aacriv 

yovvra tcaTavltyei avrovg /ACT ' co&^^ vjrep- 

7TTO[Aeva. KCLl [A^V KCLl 


TO wpjiroviov ypepoj rcov ave/>ccov 
/SoWcov vov<ri 

15. 67TI &6 TCU &6/7TVO) (AOVVlKy T6 KOA 




presently, and then they drink. Instead of 
garlands the nightingales and other musical 
birds gather flowers with their beaks out of 
the meadows adjoining, and flying over their 
heads with chirping notes scatter them among 

They are anointed with sweet ointment 
in this manner : sundry clouds draw that 
unguent out of the fountains and the rivers, 
which settling over the heads of them that 
are at the banquet, the least blast of wind 
makes a small rain fall upon them like unto 
a dew. After supper they spend the time in 
music and singing : their ditties that are in 
most request they take out of Homer's verses, For he -was 

in most esteem 

who is there present himself and feasteth "Tent?. ' 

158 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 16. 

v-jrep TOV 'Ofivvcrea KaTaKi{Aevo<;. ol 
ouv oot K TzWSow ei<n xai 

Se KCM vvva^QVO'iv EvvoAo re 

o \OKo KOM *A!a)v o 

KOA ST^CT/^C^O^ " KOA jap 

TOVTOV Tra ' avro7g 

OVTOI TravcrcDVTai 


v 6 

K(Li OVTOI acraxri, 
rore yfiv) T) jracra V\TJ eiravXe? TWV ave- 

Kivo e%ovcri ' TtyjOji elvi $vo Trap a TO 

vj &e 


among them, sitting next above Ulysses : their 

give place to 

choirs consist of boys and virmns, which were ^mer, who 

J -o hed so lustily 

for his credit. 

directed and assisted by Eunomus the Lo- TW excel- 

lent nmsicians. 

crian, and Arion the Lesbian, and Anacreon, , TWO fa 

' lyric poets. 


and Stesichorus, who hath had a place there havin s much 

inveighed a- 
gainst Helena 

ever since his reconcilement with Helena. As in his verses as 

the cause of all 
, 1 . . - theTrojanwar, 

soon as these nave done there enter a second -was struck 

blind by Castor 

choir of swans, swallows and nightingales ; a a upon * 

recantation re- 

and when they have ended, the whole woods "//" 
ring like wind-instruments by the stirring of 
the air. 

But that which maketh most for their 
mirth are two wells adjoining to the ban- 
queting place, the one of laughter, the 
other of pleasure : of these every man drinks Except & 

quorfor a feast. 

to begin the feast withal, which makes 

160 AAH9OY2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 17. 

evo)%ia$ TTIVOWI Kai TO XOITTOV 07^0- 
/ yeXtovTes $ia f 

17. Bo^Ao/x/a/ &e elirelv Kai TOJV TTI- 

ov<rrwa$ Trap* 

\ \ 5 \ 



l\iov cTTparevcraiiTag TrXyv <ye TOV 

Ke7vov &e U.QVOV ecba&Kov ev 

ro Tay a.(7e/av %(*)pco Koaeo-ai. ap- 
&e Ku^o^^ re djA(f)OTepov$ KOA TOV 
*Ava%ap<rw KOA TOV Qpaxa Zoi- 
KO,} Novftav TOV 'iTaXicvTyv, KOA 
YJV Kai KvKOvpyov TOV Aaxefiaifioviov KOA 

QaiKicova, Kai TeXXov TOI^^ 'AQyvalovs, 

Kai TOV$ (Totyovg avev Hepiavftpov. el^ov 

Se Kai ^(jL>KpaT7jv TOV ^ax^ 

Xe<r%ovvTa juueTa NecrTOpos KOA 


them spend the whole time in mirth and 

i when Iroytvas 

taken, ravished 

. Cassandra the 

daughter of 
Priamus, being 

I will also relate unto you what famous men a vir & in atid 

J priest to Mi- 

. . . nerva in the 

I saw in that association. There were all the temple of p a i- 

laS) for which 

demigods, and all that fought against Troy, a/#*&i 

dispersed the 

excepting Ajax* the Locrian : he only, they 

returned, and 

told me, was tormented in the region of the 

t The only 

unrighteous. Of barbarians there was the wise "\ an 

<J among the Scy- 

thians, who, tn- 

elder and the younger Cyrus, and Anacharsis f deavouring to 

J J brin tn the 

. Athenian laws 

the Scythian, Zamolxis* the Thracian, and amongst his 

barba. 1 ouscoun- 

Numa the Italian. There was also Lycurgus" siain t? the 

king, his bro- 
i T i 1 -TM 1 T> 11 ttier. LAERT. 

the Lacedaemonian, and Phocion and Tellus + scholar and 

servant to Py- 

the Athenians, 11 and all the Wise Men, unless 

Roman king. 

it were Periander.** \\ Lawyer to 

the Lacedfftno- 

I also saw Socrates, the son of Sophro- '"ARCH. 

Tl Two wise 

niscus, prattling with Nestor and Palamedes,^ S J4ft3 

poverty. PLU- 

and close by him stood Hyacinthus the TA . R . CH -, 

J J * Who was 

King of Co- 
rinth and a 

tt Necrom.r. 

1 62 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 18. 

- / py \ % \ tf ft I 

tovg * Trepi be avrov yvav *&KivQo<; re 

c *\ / \ f \ / 

o AaKebai/Aoviog KCM o Qecnrievt; NapKicr- 
KCU f/ TXac KOA aXXo/ TroXXo/ KOA 

KCL'I /AOi e^QKei epoiv TOV 
6ov * 

.o Se %aX7raiveiv avtw o 



e ^ovo^ o^ Tra^^v, aXX' eXe- 
/ atJro^ ei^ ry dvaTrXacrOeio''/] VTT 
TroXe/ olKeiv %pa){Aevo$ TTJ 
i ro7<; VO/AOK; 01$ wveypatyev. 
ia ol evTQi aj(j<> *Al<rmnrov re 

rfielq re ovreq xat 


Lacedaemonian, and the gallant Narcissus Socrates pro- 

fessed himself 

and Hylas, and other beautiful and lovely t/u* f hS* JOfy 

love, and that of 

youths, and for aught I could gather by Iv 

be the best and 

him he was far in love with Hyacinthus, 

this was the best 

for he discoursed with him more than all the *%*%,%%* 

sort in the 

rest : for which cause, they said, Rhadaman- %$%' j 

virtue ; but his 

thus was offended at him, and often threatened 

struction of it, 

to thrust him out of the island if he continued a j td . th ^fa re 

Ltuian brings 
him in here 

to play the fool in that fashion, and not give with these , 

1 J young and 

. bMtiiiful lads. 

over his idle manner of jesting, when he was 
at their banquet. Only Plato was not present, 
for they said he dwelled in a city framed by Sm : h a > ie 

J J J as he would 

have in his 

himself, observing the same rule of govern- commonwealth. 
ment and laws as he had prescribed for them 
to live under. 

Aristippus and Epicurus are prime men 
amongst them, because they are the most 

M 2 

164 AAH90Y2 I2TOPIA2. B, 18. 

KOA crvfATTOTiKCOTaTOi. Ttapyv Se Kai A7- 

$ TO&OVTOV {Aere/SaXe TOV 

fiev Aatfta, TVJV era/pav, 
Se 7toXXaKi$ VTTO {AeOvjs dvicr- 
Ttapoivelv. rcov Se ^TOJIKCOV 
' eri jap eXeyovTO uva- 

alveiv TOV T der oiov 

Se Kai ire pi XpwiTnrov ori ov 


TO TTapTOv eavTQv 

TOU$ Se ' 

6 Tl 

el KCLI vyvoq TIC, TOiavTy <TTIV 


jovial good fellows and the best companions. 
Diogenes the Sinopean was so far altered 
from the man he was before that he married 
with Lais the harlot, and was many times 
so drunk that he would rise and dance about 
the room as a man out of his senses. ^Esop The f able - 

* maker. 

the Phrygian served them for a jester. There 

was not one Stoic in company but were still E ^i^ s in 

busied in ascending the height of virtue's 

hill : and of Chrysippus we heard that it * s f* t ' 

Zeno, the great- 

was not lawful for him by any means to ? logician of 

J * his time, and 

chief of the 

touch upon the island until he have the fourth tut. 
time purged himself with helleborus. The 
Academics, they say, were willing- enough to He meatu 

J J ' o o not ffo pi a ton- 

i i 1 1 i ,.' who are 

come, but that they yet are doubtful and in caiud the ou 

Academics, but 
1 1111 th g new Acade- 

suspense, and cannot comprehend how there mus^howmM 

affirm nothing, 

should be any such island ; but indeed, I pouibie * that 

should be truly 
known, and 

1 66 AAH9OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 19. 

Kplcriv ee0/W<7av, are KCLI TO 

aKoXovOelv ro7<; 
vwg, VTTO vu>6el(L$ Se a 
KaTaXa/A/3dvovra<; KCM d 

19. OVTOI pjev ovv TjacLif 01 dfyoXoyct)Ta- 


A^/XXea Kai {Aero, TOVTOV 

'Kepi Se (Tvvov(ria$ K&I a<j>pOQio'ia)V olra) 

fiev dvatyavftov Trdv- 

yvvaify KCLI appeal, 

TOVTO a(j%pov avroq 

To7$ veoiq " Kai 


think, they were fearful to come to be judged 

ished all kind 

by Rhadamanthus, because themselves have {^J t u< ^T n tL 

difference be- 

abolished all kind of judgment : yet many ^"r"?/?- 

ans or sceptics ? 

of them, they say, had a desire, and would See GELL 

J J ' 1. 11. c. . 

follow after those that were coming hither, 
but were so slothful as to give it over 
because they were not comprehensive, and 
therefore turned back in the midst of their 

These were all the men of note that I saw 
there ; and amongst them all Achilles was 
held to be the best man, and next to him 
Theseus. For their manner of venery and 
copulation thus it is : they couple openly in 
the eyes of all men, both with females and 
male kind, and no man holds it for any 

1 68 AAH00Y2 I2TOP1AZ. B. 20. 

t \ e^p / /v * < 

yoi^v o y&Gez; ictjKivuoq oy o 

. at 

elai Traai KQIVO,L 


ove7 TO) TrX^dov, aXX e<n Ttept TOVTO 



XvOeaav, Kat Trpoo-eXQcov eye*) 'OfAyp 

ra re 

KOA oOev eiy, Xeycov 


o e 01^ avTO$ pev ouyvoeiv 
^ ot fiev X7ov, ot &e 

8e /ca/ KoXoficov/oy CLVTOV 


dishonesty. Only Socrates would swear 
deeply that he accompanied young men in 
a cleanly fashion, and therefore every man 
condemned him for a perjured fellow: and 
Hyacinthus and Narcissus both confessed 
otherwise for all his denial. 

The women there are all in common, and 
no man takes exception at it, in which respect 
they are absolutely the best Platonists in 

would have all 

the world : and so do the boys yield them- omen com - 

J J man. 

selves to any man's pleasure without con- 

After I had spent two or three days in 
this manner, I went to talk with Homer 
the poet, our leisure serving us both well, 
and to know of him what countryman he 
was, a question with us hard to be resolved, 

1 70 AAH6OY2 JZTOPIAS. B. 20. 

ye eXeye 

i Trapa ye To7$ TroXiraig ov% " 

TtpovyyopicLV. eri &e KCM irepi rcov 
<7Ti%a)v eTrypcuTCDV, el * 

eKelvov eicriv eyyeypa,(A(Aevoi 
Travrag avrov eivai. 

KOV OVV T&V d/A(f)l TOV Zv/VQ$OTOV K&l AplCT- 


avrov aircDV ri $v TTOT ano 



l^evai, el Ttporepav eypatye VTJV ' 


and he said he could not certainly tell him- 
self, because some said he was of Chios, , s en dties 

' of Greece strove 
for the birth of 

some of Smyrna, and many to be of Colo- Homer > h b 

J J are comprised 

. in this verse : 

phon ; but he said indeed he was a Baby- smyrna,Rho- 

dos, Colophon, 

Ionian, and among his own countrymen not irgo^Athen*.' 

called Homer but Tigranes, and afterwards 

living as an hostage among the Grecians, ^Sj^J^' 

or hostage. 

he had therefore that name put upon him. 
Then I questioned him about those verses 
in his books that are disallowed as not of 
his making, whether they were written by 
him or not, and he told me they were all 
his own, much condemning Zenodotus and TWO carping 

gra mmarians 

Aristarchus, the grammarians, for their weak- to correct ^ 

of Homer's 
i verses. 

ness in judgment. 
When he had satisfied me in this, I asked * touches 

some commen- 
. tators upon 

him again why he began the first verse of Homer, -who 

have gone about 
to give a reason 
almost of every 
word he wrote. 

172 AAH90Y2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 21. 

creiav ryq 'IX/aSo^, ax; ol TroXXoi 
o &e ypvelro. on (Aev jap ov$e 

, o Kai avro Trepi avrov Xejovcriv, av- 

t 5 / c / t rf 


aXXore rovro irotovv, el Trore avrov 

Trpocricov jap TI eirvv 

, Kai (AaXicna [Aera ryv //c^v, 

eKpcuryvev f}v jap rig 
Kar ' avTOv eTrevyvej/Aew/) v/3pea)$ VTTO 

01$ avTov ev ry 

j Kai 

21. Kara &e rov$ avrovg %povov<; 

i Hv6ajopa$ o %a 


his poem with anger : and he told me it fell 
out so by chance, not upon any premedita- 
tion. I also desired to know of him whether 
he wrote his Odysseys before his Iliads, as 
many men do hold : but he said it was not 
so. As for his blindness which is charged 
upon him, I soon found it was far other- 
wise, and perceived it so plainly that I needed 
not to question him about it. 

Thus was I used to do many days when 
I found him idle, and would go to him and 
ask him many questions, which he would 
give me answer to very freely : especially 
when we talked of a trial he had in the court 
of justice, wherein he got the better: for 
Thersites had preferred a bill of complaint See , Necr - 

mant. b. 

against him for abusing him and scoffing at 
him in his Poem, in which action Homer 


ev TOCTOVTOH; u)0i$ j3iOTv<ra$ K&I e/rre- 


eKplOf) pev (TVfATroXirevo'ao'Oai avro7$, eve- 
o/aero Se eri irorepov HvBayopav y 
Ev<f>op/3ov %py avTOv ovofiat^eiv. o 

KOA ovro$, 
TO crcoAa o\ov toTTTAevo* ov 

xaiTOi iroXXa 

22. HpoiovTO$ &e TOV %povov 
ywv Totj Trap ' avTO?<; QavaTOvcria. y 

TO ej3$o{AOv. ra [Aev ovv 
av eiy Aeye/v" ra Se 
TCOV 7rpa%6ei>T(x)v ftiyyycrofAai. 

o CL<> ' 'HaxXeovt 'O8i;cr- 


was acquitted, having Ulysses for his advo- who was 

1 eloquent orator. 


About the same time came to us Pythagoras 
the Samian, who had changed his shape now 
seven times, and lived in as many lives, and 
accomplished the periods of his soul. The 
right half of his body was wholly of gold ; 
and they all agreed that he should have place 
amongst them, but were doubtful what to call 
him, Pythagoras or Euphorbus. Empedocles a Jca 
also came to the place, scorched quite over, 
as if his body had been broiled upon the 
embers ; but could not be admitted for all his 
great entreaty. 

The time passing thus along, the day of 
prizes for masteries of activity now approached, 
which they call Thanatusia. The setters of <*"'? a " d 

J masteries a- 

niong the dead. 

them forth were Achilles the fifth time, and 

i;6 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 23. 

crea, Ttep} TOV crrefydvov 

TrvyfAvj e laTj eyeveTO 'Apelov re TOV 

AiyvTTTiov, *~oq ev KopivOco reOaTrrai, 

TIOV 8e aOXa, ov r/Oerai Trap* avro7^. TOV 



v KpdTl "O/MTj pO$, 1>IK 

e H(7/00. ra 8e aOXa, yv aTracri o-Te 

23. ' ApTi &e TOV dycoi>o$ 

o ev TO) %<*>pu> TGJV 

ra ec7/>ca 


T TOV 'AKpayavT7vov Kai Bov&ipiv TOV 

the Roman ma- 


Theseus the seventh time. To relate the 

whole circumstance would require a long dis- **<*. ho 

* when they ex- 

hibited plays 

course, but the principal points I will deliver, unto the people, 

1 * * the names of 

the setters forth 

At wrestling Carus, one of the lineage ot wen registered 

and the time 

Hercules, had the best, and wan the garland hlddomit. *' 
from Ulysses. The fight with fists was equal 
between Arius the ^Egyptian, who was buried 
at Corinth, and Epius, that combated for it. 
There was no prize appointed for the Pancra- Fighting at 

all manner of 
r i t IT 1 1 -weapons. 

tian fight : neither do I remember who got 
the best in running : but for poetry, though 
Homer without question were too good for 
them all, yet the best was given to Hesiodus. H ^ er t ? d 

about the same 

The prizes were all alike, garlands plotted of *l me > L and if 

L ' O hath been con- 

troverted by 

peacocks' feathers. ma y hich 

was the better 

As soon as the games were ended, news 
came to us that the damned crew in the 
habitation of the wicked had broken their 


1 78 AAH00Y2 IZTOPIAS. B. 23. 

Kdl AlOfAytyv TOV QpaKO, KOM 

rov<; ire pi Keipwva KCLI 


e (dyjcrevg TC Kai 'A^/XXei;^ xai Ala$ o 

eaxfipovcov' KUI 

{Aa%oi>TO xai eviKv/vajV ol 

ra 7rXe7(7Ta 

Se KCLI ^ajKdr CTTI rw 

TtoXu ///aXXov oy ore 

/Aa%eTO. TrpoviovTUiv jap 
O^A: etyvye KCLI TO 

r/v' e^ oig Kai vvrepov 

p dpKTTelov, KaXo$ re KCM 



bounds, escaped the gaolers, and were coming 
to assail the island, led by Phalaris the Agnri- 

J o bloody tyrants, 

or notorious 

gentine, Busyris the ^Egyptian, Diomedes the robbers - 

Thracian, Sciron, Pituocamptes, and others : 

which Rhadamanthus hearing, he ranged the 

Heroes in battle array upon the sea-shore, 

under the leading of Theseus and Achilles 

and Ajax Telamonius, who had now recovered 

his senses, where they joined fight ; but the 

Heroes had the day, Achilles carrying himself 

very nobly. Socrates also, who was placed 

in the right wine, was noted for a brave PLATO *" 

Laches, or Dia- 
...... logue of Forti- 

soldier, much better than he was in his life- tude, praiseth 

Socrates for his 
111 --^ , . - . - manhood at De- 

time, in the battle at Delium : for when the /*/, which 

battle the Athe- 
1 ii' i ,1 ni nians wet cover- 

enemy charged him, he neither fled nor thrown b y the 

Boeotians, and 

changed countenance : wherefore afterwards, 
in reward of his valour, he had a prize set 
out for him on purpose, which was a beautiful 

N 2 

i8o AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 24. 

TOV TOTTOV 7rpoo'ayopevo'a$ 
24. vvXXapovTes ovv rovq 

voi;^. eypatye e 

e$a)K TO, pifiXia KO/Ai^eiv TO/ 
jfjfiv dv6p(*)7roi$* aXX vcnepov KCLI 
TCOV aXXcov a 

vvv &e 

e / 

TOT 5' 

Trap ' (LVTQiq vofLoq eTreiftav tov 

, e/Vr/covro ra e7r/v//c/a 

yyov' {AQVO$ e ravryg ov 


and spacious garden, planted in the suburbs ^f a At S % 

of the city, whereunto he invited many, and did 

J J ' meet his scholars 

where Socrates 



t . 1-11 1 -i 

disputed with them there, giving it the name * 

Plato was born, 
c ^ T ., . and from hence 

of Necracademia. za takes 

this name, 
.-T-.I 1,1 -11 which signifies 

Ihen we took the vanquished prisoners, the Academy of 

the dead. 

and bound them, and sent them back to be 
punished with greater torments. 

This fight was also penned by Homer, who, 
at my departure, gave me the book to show 
my friends, which I afterwards lost and many 
things else beside : but the first verse of the 
poem I remember was this: "Tell me now, somewhat w ;e 

the beginning of 

Muse, how the dead Heroes fought." 

When they overcome in fight, they have a 
custom to make a feast with sodden beans, 
wherewith they banquet together for joy of 
their victory: only Pythagoras had no part 
with them, but sat aloof off, and lost his 

i8 2 AAH0OY2 IZTOPIA2. B. 25. 

25. 3 

o TOV 

ieyas re u>v Kai Ka^oq ypa 
%povov TJ^VJ T^ 'EXevoy^, KOA 
OVK dfyavvjg yv 7rivco$ ayajrcoo'a, TOV 

yovv Kai 
ev TO) crvfATrodla) KCLI 

e^avicnafievoi ejrXavcovTO 
KOA ryg Oj^Tj^avlaq efiovXevcraTO o Kivv- 
p&q dp7ra<ra$ TVJV 'EXevoyv fyvyelv. e^Q 

TCOV eTriKi[Aevu*v vyvwv, TJTOI eg 


dinner because he could not away with 

Six months were now passed over, and 
the seventh halfway onwards, when a new 
business was begot amongst us. For Cinyras 
the son of Scintharus, a proper tall young 
man, had long been in love with Helena, 
and it might plainly be perceived that she 
as fondly doted upon him, for they would 
still be winking and drinking one to another 
whilst they were a-feasting, and rise alone 
together, and wander up and down in the 
wood. This humour increasing, and knowing 
not what course to take, Cinyras' device was 
to steal away Helena, whom he found as A second raj* 

J of Helena. 

pliable to run away with him, to some of 
the islands adjoining, either to Phello, or 

1 84 AAH60YZ I2TOPIA2. B. 26. 

YJV Tvpoecrcrav. 

TOW era!- 



raro yap VTT' avTOv 


eyeve-ro eyco (iev ov 

yap ev ro5 (TVfjLTrodlco 

_ .. \ */ 

01 Oe \OjOovTeq iovq 

N 'TT'-V ' f V 


o MeveXeco^ enei efiade ryu evvyv Kevy 




Tyroessa, having before combined with three 
of the boldest fellows in my company to join 
with them in their conspiracy ; but never 
acquainted his father with it, knowing that 
he would surely punish him for it. 

Being resolved upon this, they watched 
their time to put it in practice : for when 
night was come, and I absent (for I was 
fallen asleep at the feast), they gave a slip to 
all the rest, and went away with Helena to 
shipboard as fast as they could. Menelaus 
waking about midnight, and finding his bed 
empty, and his wife gone, made an outcry, 
and calling up his brother, went to the court 
of Rhadamanthus. 

As soon as the day appeared, the scouts 
told them they had descried a ship, which 

1 86 

AAH9OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 26. 

eXeyov 01 CTKOTTO} KaOopoiv ryv vavv 
ovra) 07 e/^/3il3ao'ag o 
TrevryKOVTa, TOW oy^cocov elq 

a pit eq rov 






8/co/ce/z/* 01 Se VTTQ 



aXvcrei po^lvy 

>5S ' ' 


\ 5 

re Kai 

Ttporepov o 

cog ovfteva elirov, K roiy a/So/W Soy 


by that time was got far off into the sea. 
Then Rhadamanthus set out a vessel made 
of one whole piece of timber of asphodelus 
wood, manned with fifty of the Heroes to 
pursue after them, which were so willing on 
their way, that by noon they had overtaken 
them newly entered into the milky ocean, 
not far from Tyroessa, so near were they 
got to make an escape. Then took we their 
ship and hauled it after us with a chain of 
roses and brought it back again. 

Rhadamanthus first examined Cinyras and 
his companions whether they had any other 
partners in this plot, and they confessing 
none, were adjudged to be tied fast by the 
privy members and sent into the place of 
the wicked, there to be tormented, after they 

1 88 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIAZ. B. 27. 


27. e^^/VavTO Se KCLI vjfAoig 


yp,epa,v (Aovyv eTri/AeivavTag. evrav 
eye*) eTroTviaipjVjv re KCLI eftaicpvov 

e/AeXXov dyaOa 
6yo'0'()ai. avroi 

ov TroXXcov ercov 

ovov re 


TOJV dpicrTCOv. ejci) e TTpoveXOuw TO) 
TroAAa iKerevov elirelv ra 
KO>I wroe7a/ AOI TOV TrXovv. o 

8e etyacrxev d(f)l^O'6ai f^ev eq i^v 

TroXXa irporepov TrXavydeina KOA 


had been scourged with rods made of mallows. 
Helena, all blubbered with tears, was so 
ashamed of herself that she would not show 
her face. They also decreed to send us 
packing out of the country, our prefixed 
time being come, and that we should stay 
there no longer than the next morrow : where- 
with I was much aggrieved and wept bitterly 
to leave so good a place and turn wanderer 
again I knew not whither : but they com- 
forted me much in telling me that before 
many years were past I should be with them 
again, and showed me a chair and a bed 
prepared for me against the time to come 
near unto persons of the best quality. 

Then went I to Rhadamanthus, humbly 
beseeching him to tell me my future fortunes, 

1 90 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 27. 

, rov Se %0ovov OVKCTI 
TrpovBelvai ydeXycrev' aXXa 


TCOV ajvefiwv, ra$ TtXyo'lov, 'Ac/) 
TO TroXv TTVp opciq 


' ov$7ra) aoi tyalverai. 

, rore 

ryv evamlav ryj 

KOA TroiKiXa eOvvj 


e/V Toyv eiepdv vjireipov. TOCT- 



and to direct me in my course ; and he told 
me that after many travels and dangers, I 
should at last recover my country, but would 
not tell me the certain time of my return : 
and showing me the islands adjoining, which 
were five in number, and a sixth a little 
further off, he said, Those nearest are the 
islands of the ungodly, which you see burn- 
ing all in a light fire, but the other sixth 
is the island of dreams, and beyond that is 
the island of Calypso, which you cannot see .p gy / ia ,\ an 

J * J island between 

the Phoenician 

from hence. When you are past these, you and Syrian seas 

J J in which Calyp' 

. . so,asea-nyiph, 

shall come into the great continent, over the daughter of 

Oceamis and 
, , Thetis % being 

against your own country, where you shall <?, enter- 
tained Ulysses 

suffer many afflictions, and pass through *0nd jailing in 

love with him 
. j i. j_1 f t detained him 

many nations, and meet with men of inhuman with her 


conditions, and at length attain to the other 

I 9 2 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 28. 

28. Kai dvao-Trao-at; OLTTO TVJ<; 


Se K&I ei TTOT d(fiit<oi/Arjv e^ 
yyv, /Ayre Trvp [Aa%a/pa o"Ka- 

virep TO, o/crco/^a/Se/ca CTTJ 

TOVTCDV jap (w [Aepjvyj/Ae 

elq ryv vvjcrov dtyl^eax;. rore />ce 
j Trepi TOV TrXovv 


TOV TroivjTyv e^evjOvjv avrov Troiyjcral 


When he had told me this, he plucked a 
root of mallows out of the ground, and 
reached it to me, commanding me in my 
greatest perils to make my prayers to that : 
advising me further neither to rake in the Most have 

interpreted this 

fire with my knife, nor to feed upon lupins, pLept, * * 

stir up the 
1 ii' , anger of great 

nor to come near a boy when he is past a ,fd powerful 


eighteen years of age : if I were mindful of 
this, the hopes would be great that I should 
come to the island again. 

Then we prepared for our passage, and 
feasted with them at the usual hour, and 
next morrow I went to Homer, entreating 
him to do so much as make an epigram of 
two verses for me, which he did : and I 
erected a pillar of berylstone near unto the 

I 9 4 AAH90Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 29. 


7rpo<; reo IJACVI. TO e e?r- 

oq ra$e 



TTOVTCDV. evdoj /AM Kdt O$v<r<rv$ TTpocreX- 


^eiv. crvve7re[A\f; e 

TOV 7TOp6(Aea NavjrXiov, /V e/ 

$ rag WYjvovt;, 
are KO,T ' 

e?re/ &e TOV evcu^ depa Trpoi 


haven, and engraved them upon it. The 
epigram was this : 

Lucian, the gods' belov'd, did once AOWH<W& rd$ e 

ttavra. <f>i\os 


E?5f re Kai ir<- 

To see all this, and then go home * tX 



After that day's tarrying, we put to sea, 
brought onward on our way by the Heroes, 
where Ulysses closely coming to me that 
Penelope might not see him, conveyed a T^ wife of 
letter into my hand to deliver to Calypso in 
the isle of Ogygia. Rhadamanthus also sent 
Nauplius, the ferryman, along with us, that Jf 2lJ m j 

Amymone, the 

if it were our fortune to put into those ****'&*>*- 

naus, Ktng of 
the Argives. 

islands, no man should lay hands upon us, 
because we were bent upon other employ- 

O 2 

196 AAH90Y2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 30. 

re ^eivy $ie$e%ero otov dcrtyaXTOV KOA 


avQpwnwv OTTTCD/ievcov, KUI o 

avrov ^povoq TTITTIVV]' ^Kovofiev e KCLI 
\}>o(f)ov Kai 

v * jr. . > / 

so. rai<; [Aev ovv aAAai$ ov Trcoo'eo'%0 

Vj 8e 7T/3y{AV, TOiafie <Y}V* KVKX( 


a/tax; Kara rov$ 


No sooner had we passed beyond the smell 
of that sweet odour but we felt a horrible 
filthy stink, like pitch and brimstone burning, 
carrying an intolerable scent with it as if men 
were broiling upon Burning coals : the air 
was dark and muddy, from which distilled a 
pitchy kind of dew. We heard also the lash 
of the whips, and the roarings of the tor- 
mented : yet went we not to visit all the 
islands, but that wherein we landed was of f T . he hlands . 

of the tormented. 

this form : it was wholly compassed about 
with steep, sharp, and craggy rocks, without 
either wood or water: yet we made a shift 
to scramble up among the cliffs, and so went 
forwards in a way quite overgrown with 
briars and thorns through a most villainous 

198 AAH0OY2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 31. 

&e em 



eppeov, o PJV j3op/3opov, o 

, o &e e^&ov Ttvpoq, TTUVV fAe 

OVTO$ KCLI aTrepaTO^ Kai eppei axnrep 


rovq e piKovq av- 


e avrovq 

8e jbia (TTev /a 


ghastly country, and coming at last to the 
prison and place of torment we wondered to 
see the nature and quality of the soil, which 
brought forth no other flowers but swords 
and daggers, and round about it ran certain 
rivers, the first of dirt, the second of blood, 
and the innermost of burning fire, which was 
very broad and unpassable, floating like water, 
and working like the waves of the sea, full 
of sundry fishes, some as big as firebrands, 
others of a less size like coals of fire, and 
these they call Lychniscies. 

There was but one narrow entrance into it, 
and Timon of Athens appointed to keep the 
door, yet we got in by the help of Nauplius, 
and saw them that were tormented, both 

200 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 31. 



TOV Y^ivvpav K&TTVU) 

fifovg Kai ra$ airlag ec/)' alq 

Kai pey terras anrao'wv 
VTrefAevov ol tyevvafAevoi TI Trapa TOV 

ol a TaXO crveaoTe ev 

otq Kai Kr^d/a^ o Kv/&/o^ yv Kai 

Kai aXXoi TroXXoi. TOVTOV$ ovv opcov 
efyov ig TOVTTIOV rag 

" ovftev 



kings and private persons very many, of 
which there were some that I knew, for there 
I saw Cinyrus tied by private members, and 
hanging up in the smoke. But the greatest 
torments of all are inflicted upon them that 
told any lies in their lifetime, and wrote 
untruly, as Ctesias the Cnidian, Herodotus, T> 

J cms. 

and many other, which I beholding, was put 
in great hopes that I should never have any- 
thing to do there, for I do not know that hi 
ever I spake any untruth in my life. We 
therefore returned speedily to our ship (for 
we could endure the sight no longer), and 
taking our leaves of Nauplius, sent him back 

202 AAH90Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 32. 

32. ra%eci}$ 5' ovv dvaarptyag ejrl vqv 
vavv ov$e jap ytivvafiijv fyepeiv T/JV 
d<T7rao-a(AVO<; TOV NavTrXiov owe- 
i {ACT ' o\lyov etyaivero 

viov y TCOV ovelpwv vyo-oq, d/Avftpa KOA 

f SS V 


iiv i%e oe Kai avTVj TI 
ovetpoig TrapaTrXycriov' vire^copei jap irpo- 


VTTj3aiv. KaTaXa/3ovTe$ Se TTOTC 

KOA cr7rXev(7avTe< e TOV 

Trpoo-ajopevo/Aevov TrXyo-iov TCOV 
TCOV eXetyavTivtov, y TO TOV 'AXe/c- 

rpvovog epov ear/, ire pi 
a7rej3aivo(jijv, TrapeXQovreg Se eq 

oveipovg KOA TTOiKiovg ea)p- 


A little after appeared the Isle of Dreams a * ' 

Dreams de- 

near unto us, an obscure country and un- scribed - 
perspicuous to the eye, endued with the 
same quality as dreams themselves are : for 
as we drew, it still gave back and fled 
from us, that it seemed to be farther 
off than at the first, but in the end we 
attained it and entered the haven called 
Hypnus, and adjoined to the gate of Sir " 01 ' 
ivory, where the temple of Alectryon stands, 
and took land somewhat late in the even- 

Entering the gate we saw many dreams of See The Cock - 
sundry fashions ; but I will first tell you 
somewhat of the city, because no man else 
hath written any description of it : only 

204 AAH9OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 33. 

e/7re7v, eirei /^Se aXXco r/y/ 
Trepl avTy$, oq Se 



33. KvxXa) (Aev irepl 7roi<7av 
, ra tievtipa e . ecm 
Kotji juavfiaoai KCLI tit* 

ri TrXyQoq WKTepi$u>v TOVTO yap 
ev Tfl vqcrco ylverai opveov. TTOTO,- 
irapappci nXy/Giov o VTT ' 


8e Havvv%ta. o 

7repi/3oXog Se Tyq TroXea)^ tyitfh&q re xai 

Xog, lp til , TOyV 




Homer hath touched it a little, but to small v .$"'** 9 ' 


It is round about environed with a wood, 
the trees whereof are exceeding high poppies 
and mandragoras, in which an infinite num- Herbs pro- 

curing sleep. 

ber of owls do nestle, and no other birds &**#*$! 

and per sons here 

to be seen in the island : near unto it is 7rf& 

as signify some- 

a river running, called by them Nyctiporus, %%$$ t 

or to the night. 

and at the gates are two wells, the one 
named Negretus, the other Pannychia. The 
wall of the city is high and of a changeable 
colour, like unto the rainbow, in which are 
four gates, though Homer speak but of 
two : for there are two which look toward 
the fields of sloth, the one made of iron, the 

206 AAH60Y2 IZTOPIA2. B. 33. 


7TOV<rai, y Aev cr/Sa, &e ex 

ev^, K&6 ' a^ eXeyovro aTro- 
avTOJv o'l re fyofiepot K&L 

8e e 


TO NuKToiov" (removal jap 6eu*v 

fAaXicna, KCLI TOV ^ 

TO lepov 

OVTO$ jap 
Trap* avTo7$ (TaTpajra^ $vo Kai 

vos, Tapat:la)va re rov Mara/- 


other of potter's clay, through which those 
dreams have passage that represent fearful, 
bloody, and cruel matters : the other two 
behold the haven and the sea, of which the 
one is made of horn, the other of ivory, 
which we went in at. 

As we entered the city, on the right hand 
stands the temple of the Night, whom, with 
Alectryon, they reverence above all the gods : 
for he hath also a temple built for him 
near unto the haven. On the left hand 
stands the palace of sleep, for he is 
the sovereign king over them all, and 
hath deputed two great princes to govern 
under him, namely, Taraxion, the son of 
Matogenes, and Plutocles, the son of Phan- 

208 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 34. 

KOA UXovTOKXea tov 

ev fieo' f fl e TT yopa irvjyyj TI$ ecmv, 
KaXov&i Y^ape&Tiv* Kai TrXycriov vaol 

TO aftvTOV 6CTT1V aVT()7$ KOA TO 

ov TTpoeio-ryKei Trpotyv/Tevajv 'Avr/(/)aiv o 

ovepcov VTTOKpiTijg, TavTys Trapa TOV 

34. avrajv /Mevroi rcov ovelpwv 

if it *<\ r a/ ^^> < 

(pvcri$ ovre /6ea TJ avTy. aAA 01 

re yvav Kai (AaXaxoi KUI 
KOA vei$e7$, ol &e VK^yoi KOM 

KCLl 01 

ol 8e Taireivoi T KO.I 

ev UVTOH; KOjt TrrepcDTOi Tiveq 

KOA re^arcoSe/^, KOA aXXoi KOjOasnep e 


In the middest of the market-place is a 
well, by them called Careotis, and two 
temples adjoining, the one of falsehood, 
the other of truth, which have either of 
them a private cell peculiar to the priests, 
and an oracle, in which the chief prophet 
is Antiphon, the interpreter of dreams, who 
was preferred by Sleep to that place of 

These dreams are not all alike either in 
nature or shape, for some of them are long, 
beautiful, and pleasing: others again are as 
short and deformed. Some make show to 
be of gold, and others to be as base and 
beggarly. Some of them had wings, and 
were of monstrous forms : others set out in 

210 AAH6OY2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 35. 

, 01 

a, ol Se eg 6eov$ 9 ol Se e/V a 

Afe/coa/x/^/x/evo/. TroXXovg 8e a^roi 
yvu>p{(Taj/jjV TraXai Trap* VJ/MV ecopa 
, o? S^ /ca/ Troo-evajV xai 


iravv Xa^TTco Kai 

royv re 

voi /3a(nXea$ re Troiycreiv xai 

evioi Se /ca/ aTr^yov oy/x/a^ e/V ra^ irarpt- 


35. Aea *zv ovv 

Trap* avro7$ 


pomp, as it were in a triumph, representing 
the appearances of kings, gods, and other 

Many of them were of our acquaintance, 
for they had been seen of us before, which 
came unto us and saluted us as their old 
friends, and took us and lulled us asleep, 
and feasted us nobly a*nd courteously, pro- 
mising beside all other entertainment which 
was sumptuous and costly, to make us kings 
and princes. Some of them brought us home 
to our own country to show us our friends 
there, and come back with us the next 

Thus we spent thirty days and as many 
nights among them, sleeping and feasting 

p 2 

212 AAH90YZ I2TOPIA2. B. 35. 



8 ' eKciQev ry 'Qyvyla vy 

Xvcrag rr/v eTricrroXyv dveyt 

Trapa crov rqv 



VTTQ TrjXeyovov varepov TOV K 


all the while, until a sudden clap of thunder 
awakened us all, and we starting up, pro- 
vided ourselves of victuals, and took sea 
again, and on the third day landed in 
Ogygia. But upon the way I opened the 
letter I was to deliver, and read the contents, 
which were these : 

"Ulysses to Calypso sendeth greeting. 
This is to give you to understand that after 
my departure from you in the vessel I made 
in haste for myself, I suffered shipwreck, 
and hardly escaped by the help of Leucothea 
into the country of the Phaeacks, who sent 
me to mine own home, where I found many 
that were wooers to my wife, and riotously 
consumed my means ; but I slew them all, 

214 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 36. 

yevofAevov awgpeOyv, KCLI vvv eifAi ev 
$ MaKapwv vvjcrcp TTUVV [Aeravoajv em 
TCO Ka,TaXi7re7v TT/V Trapa croi filairav KCM, 

V7TO (70V 


Ttpoq cre. <( TavTa [Aev efiyXov V/ 

, Kal Trep} 


evov TO GTrXaiov TOIOVTOV olov 

irpcoTa /Aev em TtoXv ea/o 
pvev, eTteira e TrapexaXei vjfAaq em 
a KCLI e/Vr/a XafA7rpa}$ KCLI Trepi TOV 

KOA 7Tp} 


and was afterwards killed myself by my son 
Telegonus. whom I begat of Circe, and am , 

told by his mo- 
ther whose son 

now in the island of the blessed, where I ***v*w&rf 

to Ithaca to see 

daily repent myself for refusing 1 to live with being kept bad 

by the guard, 

you, and forsaking the immortality proffered o 

tance, he slew 
i i , / T A. certain of them, 

me by you ; but if I can spy a convenient an d at length 

Ulysses being 

time, I will give them all the slip and come JT %!*, 

Telegonus not 

tr> VO11 " knowing who he 

nj y \J u . was, ignorantly 

slew him. 

This was the effect of the letter, with 
some addition concerning us, that we should 
have entertainment : and far had I not gone 
from the sea but I found such a cave as 
Homer speaks of, and she herself working 
busily at her wool. When she had received 
the letter, and brought us in, she began to 
weep and take on grievously, but afterwards 

216 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 37. 

Tryg, OTroia re eiy VYJV o\f/w KOA el 

'Ofivcro-evi; TtaXai irepi 
KOA x/e/ TOIUVTO, dire- 

rore Lev ovv oijTeXBovre eiri 

vawv TrXycriov eir} rys yiovoq 

rov TrvevAaro' KCM 


ovroi ajpioi ex rcov 

. ra 

cloven /AeyaXa KoXoKvvdiva, TO 

T/JV KoXoKw6av, KOiXajVavreq avTyv KOA 

ryv evrepiwvyv e/ATrXeovGiv, la- 


she called us to meat, and made us very 
good cheer, asking us many questions con- 
cerning Ulysses and Penelope, whether she 
was so beautiful and modest as Ulysses had 
often before bragged of her. 

And we made her such answer as we 
thought would give her best content: and 
departing to our ship, reposed ourselves near 
unto the shore, and in the morning put to 
sea, where we were taken with a violent 
storm, which tossed us two days together, 
and on the third we fell among the Colocyn- 
thopiratans. These are a wild kind of men, 
that issue out of the islands adjoining, and 
prey upon passengers, and for their shipping 
have mighty great gourds six cubits in 

218 AAH9OY2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 38. 

oQovyq TCU tyvXXco 
7rpocrj3aXovT$ ovv . y/jJiv diro 



. d<y%(i)/&aXa)$ Se em 

TTiv TCOV Ko\OKVv6o7Tif>a,Ta)v Tr 


38. Tji^etq 8e ev TOVOVTCO 7rapavTe<; ty 



length, which they make hollow when they 
are ripe, and cleanse out all that is within 
them, and use the rinds for ships, making 
their masts of reeds, and their sails of the 
gourd leaves. 

These set upon us with two ships fur- 
nished and fought with us, and wounded 
many, casting at us instead of stones the 
seeds of those gourds. The fight was con- 
tinued with equal fortune until about noon, 
at which time, behind the Colocynthopiratans, 
we espied the Caryonautans coming on, who, 
as it appeared, were enemies to the other, 
for when they saw them approach, they for- 
sook us and turned about to fight with 
them ; and in the mean space we hoist sail 
and away, leaving them together by the ears, 

220 AAH6OY2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 39. 

Kapvovavrai are KCM irXelov^ irevre yap 

G&TTO i(r%vpOTp(av 

vecov fAa,%o(Aevoi* TO, yap ?rXo7a yv avrdig 

y (A i op, a 

opyviai TrevTeKaifteKa. eirei Se 
fy&ILev avrovg, lOj/AeOd re rov$ 
Tiaq KCLI ro XOITTOV ev ro7$ 07rXot$ 
cog eir/nav del riva$ eTTtfiovXag T 


39. OVTTCt) JOVV $$VKl yXlO<; 9 KOA 

diro -rivoq epy/iov wyvov TrpocryXavvov 


Acov o%ovfAVOi, Xyo-Tai Kai OVTOI' KCM ol 

avrov$ efyepov d 



and no doubt but the Caryonautans had the 
better of the day, for they exceeded in num- 
ber, having five ships well furnished, and 
their vessels of greater strength, for they are 
made of nutshells cloven in the midst and 
cleansed, of which every half is fifteen fathom 
in length. 

When we were got out of sight we were 
careful for the curing of our hurt men, and 
from that time forwards went no more un- 
armed, fearing continually to be assaulted on 
the sudden : and good cause we had : for 
before sunsetting some twenty men or there- 
abouts, which also were pirates, made towards 
us, riding upon monstrous great dolphins, 
which carried them surely : and when their 
mders gat upon their backs, would neigh 

222 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIA2. B. 40. 


evOev, 01 8e evftev e 

Kai otyOaXfAo'is KapKiva)v. 

, aXXa TcoSe^re^ o; TroXXo/ 

40. ?re^/ 6 TO 

Aev 7rpoo"OKeiXavTe$ a 
TrafA/AeyeOei' o~Ta5/cov youv yv avrv/ 
TO TreptfAeTpov. eTTCTrXei 8e y 
V TO, a>a OaXTrovcra ov TroXv 
. KCLI Soy d 






like horses. When they were come near us, 
they divided themselves, some on the one 
side, and some on the other, and flung at 
us with dried cuttle-fishes and the eyes of 
sea-crabs ; but when we shot at them again 
and hurt them, they would not abide it, 
but fled to the island, the most of them 

About midnight, the sea being calm, we 
fell before we were aware upon a mighty 
great halcyon's nest, in compass no less than or kingfisher. 
threescore furlongs, in which the halcyon 
herself sailed, as she was hatching her eggs, 
in quantity almost equalling the nest, for 
when she took her wings, the blast of her 
feathers had like to have overturned our 
ship, making a lamentable noise as she flew 

224 AAH9OY2 I2TOPIAZ. B. 41. 

vyv KaXiav o%$la 



exploit. TreXeKecriv ovv 

ev TCOV wcov veorrov 


ovov oraS/Of^ $iaKocriov$, repara 

o re yap ev ry 

(f>aXaKpo<; oy&oy cov dve- 


o jap 


As soon as it was day, we got upon it, 
and found it to be a nest, fashioned like a 
great lighter, with trees plaited and wound 
one within another, in which were five hun- 
dred eggs, every one bigger than a tun of 
Chios measure, and so near their time of 
hatching that the young chickens might be 
seen and began to cry. Then with an axe 
we hewed one of the eggs in pieces, and 
cut out a young one that had no feathers, 
which yet was bigger than twenty of our 

When we had gone some two hundred 
furlongs from this nest, fearful prodigies and 
strange tokens appeared unto us, for the 
carved goose, that stood for an ornament on 

226 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIAZ. B. 42. 

dvetyvcre KO.I CTTI TCO axpco e/tap- 


o e Kap7ro$ yv ait/to, 


f \ * \ % f \ 

TO eiKOt; eTOjpajfflVjfjjev KCLI 

\ 5 

ro7g Oediq dirorpetyai TO 



/ Xacriov 



yireipov elvai* TO 8e 

yovv Kai TO Troiv 


jap 8/a roiv 


the stern of our ship, suddenly flushed out 
with feathers and began to ciy. Scintharus, 
our pilot, that was a bold man, in an instant 
was covered with hair : and which was more 
strange than all the rest, the mast of our 
ship began to bud out with branches and 
to bear fruit at the top, both of figs and 
great clusters of grapes, but not yet ripe. 
Upon the sight of this we had great cause 
to be troubled in mind, and therefore be- 
sought the gods to avert from us the evil 
that by these tokens was portended. 

And we had not passed full out five hun- 
dred furlongs, but we came in view of a 
mighty wood of pine - trees and cypress, 
which made us think it had been land, when 
it was indeed a sea of infinite depth, planted 
with trees that had no roots, but floated 


228 AAH90Y2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 42. 

TOV VJV TTVKva jap K&i 7rpocre%y 


e dveXOcov eiri TO 



Ti\elovq T^V ilx^z^ ovcrav, 

erepov WKeavov eK$e%o{Aei>ov. KOA 
dva6e[Aevov<; ryv vavv 

V7rp/3i/3acrai 9 el ftvvalfieOa, eq 
erepav' K&I OVT(JL>$ 

<yap avryv xaXco 

dvifAyjcrafAeOa, xai QevTeq em TCOV 

TO, /or/a 

ev OaXaTTy eTrXeo/Aev TOV dve/AOv 


firm and upright, standing upon the water. 
When we came to it and found how the 
case stood with us, we knew not what to do 
with ourselves. To go forwards through the 
trees was altogether impossible : they were 
so thick and grew so close together : and to 
turn again with safety was as much unlikely. 
I therefore got me up to the top of the 
highest tree to discover, if I could, what 
was beyond ; and I found the breadth of 
the wood to be fifty furlongs or there- 
about, and then appeared another ocean 
to receive us. Wherefore we thought it 
best to assay to lift up our ship upon the 
leaves of the trees which were thick grown, 
and by that means pass over, if it were 
possible, to the other ocean : and so we 
did : for fastening a strong cable to our 

230 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 43. 

OOVVTO$ eTTicrvpofAevoi' evOa 807 KCLI TO 


i jap TTOV KOjKeivoq* 
Tolviv 8' vXyevTO, 8/a TrXoov 

eq TO 


pov KCfji $iavyov$ y 


Va), KaOdirep ev 

opco/Aev VTTO (reicrfAcov yevo- 

TO, /or/a oz; 

'' eX6oj 

Trap oyov eoj(ra 

ovov crraS/coy %iXiaw {AaXa tyofiepov KCLI 


ship, we wound it about the tops of the 
trees, and with much ado poised it up to 
the height, and placing it upon the branches, 
spread our sails, and were carried as it 
were upon the sea, dragging our ship after 
us by the help of the wind which set it 
forwards. At which time a verse of the 
poet Antimachus came to my remembrance, 
wherein he speaks of sailing over tops of 

When we had passed over the wood, and 
were come to the sea again, we let down 
our ship in the same manner as we took it 
up. Then sailed we forwards in a pure and 
clear stream, until we came to an exceeding 
great gulf or trench in the sea, made by 
the division of the waters as many times 
is upon land, where we see great clefts 

232 AAH00Y2 I2TOPIAZ. B. 44. 


fio^ov' e/Vr^/ce/ jap TO vftoop axmep 
' TtepifiXeTrovTeq e 
ov TTCLVV TroppajOev 

<; vqv erepav 

ovv Tdlq K(*)7i;ai$ KCLI 
Ke7vo Trojpe^p&pjOpjev K&I 

re Trpocryves K&L wy<TQ$ ov [AeydXvj, ev- 

7Tpocrno$, o-vvoiKOVfAevy* 

aypioi avOpcoiroi, 

I OLOV Trap" ypAv TOV Mtvwravpov 
. 8flto$cwT$ Se 


made in the ground by earthquakes and 
other means. Whereupon we struck sail 
and our ship stayed upon a sudden when 
it was at the pit's brim ready to tumble 
in : and we stooping down to look into it, 
thought it could be no less than a thou- 
sand furlongs deep, most fearful and mon- 
strous to behold, for the water stood as it 
were divided into two parts, but looking 
on our right hand afar off, we perceived a 
bridge of water, which to our seeming, did 
join the two seas together and crossed over 
from the one to the other. Wherefore we 
laboured with oars to get unto it, and over 
it we went and with much ado got to 
the further side beyond all our expectation. 

Then a calm sea received us, and in it 
we found an island, not very great, but 

2.34 AAH9OY2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 44. 

KOA (7/T/a 

OVKCTI jap efyopev. KOA 
vTOv 7r\vj<Tlov Vf>OfAV, 
8e ovfiev etyaivero, TrXy 
ov TTOppwOev yKovero. So^avre^ ovv 
elvat j3ocov, /car' 

dv6pu)7roi$. ol 8e 

XafAfiavovcriv, ol e AO/TTG/ TT^O^ roy 


irepi&elv Tovq (f)tXov$ e/A- 

ro7<; ySou/cec^aXo/^ ra Kpea rcov 

KreivofAev re 

/c*a/ aJ^ra a^rcm; 


inhabited with unsociable people, for in it 
were dwelling wild men named Bucepha- 
lians, that had horns on their heads like 
the picture of Minotaurus. where we went * mons ^ et ' f 

who was half 
a bull and half 

ashore to look for fresh water and victuals, *,*# 

on Pasiph ae, the 
-wife of Minos, 

for ours was all spent : and there we found &? f Crete, 

by a bull, with 
. , i i 1 "which she fell 

water enough, but nothing: else appeared : * ***, etc. 

' OVID. Met. 

only we heard a great bellowing and roar- 
ing a little way off, which we thought to 
have been some herd of cattle, and going 
forwards, fell upon those men, who espying 
us, chased us back again, and took three of 
our company: the rest fled towards the sea. 
Then we all armed ourselves, not mean- 
ing to leave our friends unrevenged, and 
set upon the Bucephalians as they were 
dividing the flesh of them that were slain, 
and put them all to flight, and pursued 

236 AAII00Y2 IZTOPIAZ. B. 44. 

, KO.I 

ovfiev evpopev. 01 /Aev ovv aXXoi 




poiq Tovq <TVvei\ f Y](jjpjevovq % vvvtepjev yap 
$iavVovTO)v Kat yoepov ri 


TVpol TTOXXO/ KCLl l%0v$ fypOl KOM 


, ol &e TTova) elq eva 




after them, of whom we killed fifty, and 
two we took alive, and so returned with 
our prisoners ; but food we could find none. 

Then the company were all earnest with 
me to kill those whom we had taken ; but 
I did not like so well of that, thinking it 
better to keep them in bonds until ambas- 
sadors should come from the Bucephalians to 
ransom them that were taken, and indeed they 
did : and I well understood by the nodding 
of their heads, and their lamentable lowing, 
like petitioners, what their business was. 

So we agreed upon a ransom of sundry 
cheeses and dried fish and onions and four 
deer with three legs apiece, two behind and 
one before. Upon these conditions we de- 
livered those whom we had taken, and tarry- 
ing there but one day, departed. 

238 AAH0OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 45. 

45. y^vj &e i%6ve$ re vj/juv efyalvovro 
opvea 7rap7reTTO Kai aXX OTTO era 

va,VTtXia<; %pu>/jjvov<;' t OWTOI jap 
Kai vavTat Kai vyeq yvav. Xe^co e TOV 


ra al^ola fieyaXa Se 
avTCov oOovyv 




* ol 8e Trpoiovres eTiefyepQVTO tovq 

. ovroi ypjaq olre yftiKOvv ovre 

efyevyov, aXX' oyXawov aeco^ re 


Then the fishes began to show them- 
selves in the sea, and the birds flew over 
our heads, and all other tokens of our 
approach to land appeared unto us. Within 
a while after we saw men travelling the 
seas, and a new found manner of navigation, 
themselves supplying the office both for ship 
and sailor, and I will tell you how. As they 
lie upon their backs in the water and their 
privy members standing upright, which are of 
a large size and fit for such a purpose, they 
fasten thereto a sail, and holding their cords 
in their hands, when the wind hath taken it, 
are carried up and down as please themselves. 

After these followed others riding upon 
cork, for they yoke two dolphins together, 
and drive them on (performing themselves 
the place of a coachman), which draw the 

240 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 46. 

ipyviKco<; TO e/0 TO? y/Aerepov TrXolov 

Xy' KarcpKVjTO e ai 


Trpcxyyeo-av jap xai 
ro KOA ytnrafyvTO, Travv er 

K(LI ttaXai Tracrai xai 


at yvvoAKeq eKaarv] TTpog 
KOM evov eTro/erro. eyco &e 
pov v7TO(TTa<; ov jap ^pyvTa, 

&Kpij3eo"repov re 7repi/3Xe7ra)v opoj 



cork along after them. These never offered us 
any violence, nor once shunned our sight ; but 
passed along in our company without fear, in a 
peaceable manner, wondering at the greatness 
of our ship, and beholding it on every side. 
At evening we arrived upon a small island, 
inhabited, as it seemed, only by women, 
which could speak the Greek language ; for 
they came unto us, gave us their hands, 
and saluted us, all attired like wantons, 
beautiful and young, wearing long mantles 
down to the foot : the island was called 
Cabbalusa and the city Hydramardia. So 
the women received us, and every one of 
them took aside one of us for herself, and 
made him her guest. But I pausing a 
little upon it (for my heart misgave me), 
looked narrowly round about, and saw the 


242 AAH6OY2 IZTOP1AZ. B. 46. 

xai TO p*ev /3ov/v icrTavai /ca/ rovg 

e ra 

pelv OVK 

TroXXa, yvffipvjv (Liny S/a- 

K raiv TraovTCM KUKCOV. 

cr/ceXo; o^ yvvaiKog, aXX' ovot^ OTrXa^" 
Soy cnracrafAevos TO %i(j)0<; (7vXXa[A/3ava) 

T TCLVTyv Kai <7a 7reC>/ roiv 

Je, a/towa, Aev, eiTre 


TrpoeayopevofAevas, Tpo- 

TavTa eKevyv f&v MVTOV KCLI 



bones of many men, and the skulls lying 
together in a corner ; yet I thought not good to 
make any stir, or to call my company about 
me, or to put on arms ; but taking the mallow 
into my hand, made my earnest prayers thereto 
that I might escape out of those present perils. 
Within a while after, when the strange 
female came to wait upon me, I perceived 
she had not the legs of a woman, but the 
hoofs of an ass. Whereupon I drew my 
sword, and taking fast hold of her, bound 
her, and examined her upon the point: and 
she, though unwillingly, confessed that they 
were sea-women, called Onosceleans, and 
they fed upon strangers that travelled that 
way. For, said she, when we have made 
them drunk, we go to bed to them, and 
in their sleep, make a hand of them. 

244 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIAZ. B. 47. 

TO <7Teo e3ocov re 

KOA yyov (70) 7rpo$ vqv 
avTixa v$u>p eyeveto KCLI 

6 TO /)0 6 TO 

TO Se a//>oa eyevero 


KCLI eirei 

7Tl &6 GVWyXdoV, TO, 

ai>To7$ xai ra re oora e 

, ryv yireipov oi7roj3Xe7ro{Aevoi eiKcify- 
elvai tyv avrnrepav ly vcf) ' oy^cov 

8 ' 

ovv KOA Trpocrev^ajAevoi irepi TCOV 

V V~f 



I hearing this, left her bound in the 
place where she was, and went up to the 
roof of the house, where I made an outcry, 
and called my company to me, and when they 
were come together, acquainted them with all 
that I had heard, and showed them the bones, 
and brought them into her that was bound, 
who suddenly was turned into water, and 
could not be seen. Notwithstanding, I thrust 
my sword into the water to see what would 
come of it, and it was changed into blood. 

Then we made all the haste we could to our 
ship, and got us away, and as soon as it was 
clear day, we had sight of the mainland, which 
we judged to be the country opposite to our 
continent. Whereupon we worshipped, and 
made our prayers, and took council what was 
now to be done. Some thought it best only to 

246 AAH6OY2 I2TOPIA2. B. 47. 


evoiKOvvrwv. ev oVco Se 

fAeOa,, %eifA(ov vfyo^poq e 

TO (TKa()0 TO> 

ra oVXa e/cacrro^ /ca/ e/ T/ aXXo o/o^ re 

ovv TO, 

(Tvveve%6evr& fjuoi ev TVJ 

ev TCO ae^/ /ca/ ^er ' a^ra ev TO> 

di re 

KCU ro7 oveiQi KCLI TO, 


go a-land and so return back again : others 
thought it better to leave our ship there and 
march into the mid-land to try what the 
inhabitants would do : but whilst we were 
upon this consultation a violent storm fell upon 
us, which drave our ship against the shore, 
and burst it all in pieces, and with much ado 
we all swam to land with our arms, every man 
catching what he could lay hands on. 

These are all the occurrences I can ac- 
quaint you withal, till the time of our land- 
ing, both in the sea, and in our course to 
the islands, and in the air, and after that in 
the whale ; and when we came out again what 
betid unto us among the Heroes and among 
the dreams, and lastly among the Bucephalians 
and the Onosceleans. What passed upon land 
the next books shall deliver. 


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